Wildlife Genetics
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Genetics Team Leader
Rocky Mountain Research Station
800 E. Beckwith Ave.
Missoula, MT 59801

Wildlife Genetics Laboratory

Publications, Reports and Protocols

Peer Reviewed Publications

Note: Please visit our Wildlife and Terrestrial Habitats publication database for broader searches.

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Hansen, M.M., Olivieri I.,Waller, D. M., Nielsen, E. E. and the GeM working group. 2012. Monitoring adaptive genetic responses to environmental change. Molecular Ecology 21: 1311-1329.
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Pilgrim, K.L., W.J. Zielinski, F.V. Schlexer and M.K. Schwartz. 2012. Development of a reliable method for determining sex for a primitive rodent, the Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra) Conservation Genet Resour DOI 10.1007/s12686-012-9686-6.
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Zielinski, W.J., F.Z. Schlexer, S.A. Parks, KL. Pilgrim and M.K. Schwartz 2012. Small geographic range but not panmictic: how forests structure the endangered Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra) Conserv Genet DOI 10.1007/s10592-012-0387-1
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Russell, R. E., J. A. Royle, R. Desimone, M. K. Schwartz, V. L. Edwards, K. P. Pilgrim, and K. S. McKelvey. 2012. Estimating abundance of mountain lions from unstructured spatial sampling. The Journal of Wildlife Management DOI: 10.1002/jwmg.412
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Campbell, N. R., S. J. Amish, V. L. Prichard, K. M. McKelvey, M. K. Young, M. K. Schwartz, J. C. Garza, G. Luikart, and S. R. Narum. 2012. Development and evaluation of 200 novel SNP assays for population genetic studies of westslope cutthroat trout and genetic identification of related taxa. Molecular Ecology Resources. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2012.03161.x
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Short Bull, R. A., S. A. Cushman, R. Mace, T. Chilton, K. C. Kendall, E. L. Landguth, M.K. Schwartz, K. Mckelvey, Fred W. Allendorf and G. Luikart. 2011. Why replication is important in landscape genetics: American black bear in the Rocky Mountains. Molecular Ecology (2011) 20, 1092-1107
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Magoun, A.J., C.D. Long, M.K. Schwartz, K.L. Pilgrim, R.E. Lowell, P.Valkenburg. 2011. Integrating Motion-Detection Cameras and Hair Snags for Wolverine Identification. The Journal of Wildlife Management 75(3):731-739.
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Hare, M.P., L. Nunney, M.K. Schwartz, D. E. Ruzzante, M. Burford, R.S. Waples, K. Ruegg, and F. Palstra. 2011. Understanding and Estimating Effective Population Size for Practical Application in Marine Species Management. Conservation Biology, Volume 25, No. 3, 438-449.
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Marucco, F., L. Boitani, D. H. Pletscher and M. K. Schwartz. 2011. Bridging the gaps between non-invasive genetic sampling and population parameter estimation. Eur J Wildl Res (2011) 57:1-13
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Luikart, G., N. Ryman, D.A. Tallmon, M.K. Schwartz, and F.W. Allendorf. 2010. Estimation of census and effective population sizes: the increasing usefulness of DNA-based approaches. Conservation Genetics 11: 355-373.
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Schwartz, M.K., G. Luikart, K.S. McKelvey, and S.A Cushman. 2010. Chapter 9. Landscape Genomics: A Brief Perspective. Pages 165-174 in: S.A. Cushman and F. Huettmann, editors. Spatial complexity, informatics, and wildlife conservation. Springer, New York, U.S.A
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McKelvey, K.S., S.A. Cushman, and M.K. Schwartz. 2010. Chapter 17. Landscape Genetics. In: Spatial Complexity, Informatics, and Wildlife Conservation. Springer.
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Landguth, E.L., S.A. Cushman, M.K. Schwartz, K.S. McKelvey, M. Murphy, and G. Luikart. 2010. Quantifying the lag time to detect barriers in landscape genetics. Molecular Ecology. DOI 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04808.x.
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Tallmon, D.A., D. Gregovich, R. Waples, C.S. Baker, J. Jackson, B. Taylor, E. Archer, K.K. Martien, F.W. Allendorf, and M.K. Schwartz. 2010. When are genetic methods useful for estimating contemporary abundance and detecting population trends? Molecular Ecology Resources. DOI 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2010.02831.x
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Laikre, L., M.K. Schwartz, R.S. Waples, N. Ryman and The GeM Working Group. 2010. Compromising genetic diversity in the wild: unmonitored large-scale release of plants and animals. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25 (2010) 520-529.
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Laikre, L., F.W. Allendorf, L. Aroner, C.S. Baker, D. Gregovich, M.H. Hansen, J. Jackson, K.C. Kendall, K. McKelvey, M.C. Neel, I. Olivieri, N. Ryman, M.K. Schwartz, R. Short Bull, J. Stetz, D.A. Tallmon, B.L. Taylor, C.D. Vojta, D.M. Waller, and R.S. Waples. 2010. Neglect of genetic diversity in implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Conservation Biology 24(1):86-88.
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Brinkman, T.J., D.K. Person, M.K. Schwartz, K.L. Pilgrim, K.E. Colson, K.J. Hundertmark. 2010. Individual identification of Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) using DNA from fecal pellets. Conservation Genet Resour (2010) 2:115-118.
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Mullen, L.B., H.A. Woods, M.K. Schwartz, A.J. Sepulveda, and W.H. Lowe. 2010. Scale-dependent genetic structure of the Idaho giant salamander (Dicamptodon aterrimus) in stream networks. Molecular Ecology 19: 898-909.
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Schwartz, M.K., and J.A. Vucetich. 2009. Molecules and beyond: assessing the distinctness of the Great Lakes wolf. Molecular Ecology 18:2307-2309. Molecular Ecology 18:2307-2309.

Moriarty, K.M., W.J. Zielinski, A.G. Gonzalez, T.E. Dawson, K.M. Boatner, C.A. Wilson, F.V. Schlexer, K.L. Pilgrim, J.P. Copeland, and M.K. Schwartz. 2009. Wolverine confirmation in California after nearly a century: native or long-distance immigrant? Northwestern Science 83(2):154-162.
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Schwartz, M.K., J. P. Copeland, N. J. Anderson, J.R. Squires, R.M. Inman, K.S. Mckelvey, K.L. Pilgrim, L.P. Waits, and S. A. Cushman. 2009. Wolverine gene flow across a narrow climatic niche. Ecology, 90(11):3222-3232.
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Schwartz, M.K. 2009. Uniting ecological and genetic data for the conservation of wild ibex. Animal Conservation 12:103-104.
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Francesca Marucco, Daniel H. Pletscher, Luigi Boitani, Michael K. Schwartz, Kristy L. Pilgrim and Jean-Dominique Lebreton 2009. Wolf survival and population trend using non-invasive capture-recapture techniques in the Western Alps. Journal of Applied Ecology. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2009.01696.x
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Beja-Pereira, Albano Rita Oliveira, Paulo C. Alves, Michael K. Schwartz and Gordon Luikart. 2009. Advancing ecological understandings through technological transformations in noninvasive genetics. Molecular Ecology Resources 9, 1279-1301
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Cushman, S.A., K.S. McKelvey, and M.K. Schwartz. 2009. Evaluating habitat connectivity and mapping of corridors between Yellowstone National Park and the Canadian Border with landscape genetics and least cost path analysis. Conservation Biology 23:368-376.

McKelvey KS, Aubry KB, and Schwartz MK. 2008. The use of anecdotal occurrence data for rare or elusive species: the illusion of reality and a call for evidentiary standards. Bioscience. Vol. 58 No. 6:549-555.
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Homyack JA, Vashon JH, Libby C, Lindquist EL, McAlpine DF, Pilgrim KL, and Schwartz MK. 2008. Canada lynx-bobcat (Lynx canadensis x L. rufus) hybrids at the southern periphery of lynx range in Maine, Minnesota and New Brunswick. Am. Midl. Nat. 159:504-508.
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Luikart, G., K. Pilgrim, J. Visty, V. Ezenwa, and M.K. Schwartz. 2008. Candidate gene microsatellite variation is associated with parasitism in wild bighorn sheep. Biology Letters 4:228-231.
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Cushman, S.A., K.S. McKelvey, and M.K. Schwartz. 2008. Case Study 6.1: DNA survey for fisher in Northern Idaho. Pgs. 173-174 in: R.A. Long, P. MacKay, J.C. Ray, and W.J. Zielinski, Editors. Noninvasive Survey Methods for North American Carnivores. Island Press, Washington D.C.
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Kendall, K.C. and K.S. McKelvey. 2008. Chapter 6: Hair Collection. Pgs. 135-176 in: R.A. Long, P. MacKay, J.C. Ray, and W.J. Zielinski, Editors. Noninvasive Survey Methods for North American Carnivores. Island Press, Washington D.C.
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Schwartz M. K. and Monfort S. L. 2008. Genetic and Endocrine Tools for Carnivore Surveys. In: Long RA, MacKay P, Ray JC, Zielinski WJ (eds) Noninvasive survey methods for North American carnivores. Island Press, Washington D.C.
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Luikart G, Pilgrim K, Visty J, Ezenwa V, and Schwartz MK. 2008. Candidate gene microsatellite variation is associated with parasitism in wild bighorn sheep. Biol. Lett. (2008) 4, 228-231.
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Schwartz, M.K. and K.S. McKelvey. 2008. Why sampling scheme matters: the effect of sampling scheme on landscape genetic results. Conservation Genetics 10:441-452.
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Schwartz MK. 2007. Ancient DNA confirms native rocky mountain fisher Martes pennanti avoided early 20 th century extinction. Journal of Mammalogy 88:921-925.
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Jordan, Mark J. , J . Mark Higley, Sean M. Matthews, Olin E. Rhodes, Michael K. Schwartz, Reginald H. Barrett and Per J. Palsbøll. 2007. Development of 22 new microsatellite loci for fishers (Martes pennanti) with variability results from across their range. Molecular Ecology Notes.
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Schwartz MK, Luikart G, and Waples RS. 2007. Genetic monitoring as a promising tool for conservation and management. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22: 25-33.
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Schwartz MK, Aubry KB, McKelvey KS., Pilgrim KL,Copeland JP, Squires JR, Inman RM, Wisely SM and Ruggiero LF. 2007. Inferring Geographic Isolation of Wolverines in California Using Historical DNA. The Journal of Wildlife Management 71:2170-2179.
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Compton, B., K. McGarigal, S.A. Cushman and L. Gamble. 2007. A resistant kernel model of connectivity for vernal pool breeding amphibians. Conservation Biology.
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McKelvey, Kevin S., von Kienast, Jeffrey, Aubry, Keith B., Koehler, Gary M.; Maletzke, Bejamin T., Squires, John R., Lindquist, Edward L., Loch, Steve, Schwartz, Michael K. 2006. DNA Analysis of Hair and Scat Collected Along Snow Tracks to Document the Presence of Canada Lynx. Wildlife Society Bulletin, Vol. 34(2): 451-455
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Todd J. Ulizio, John R. Squires, Daniel H. Pletscher, Michael K. Schwartz, James J. Claar, and Leonard F. Ruggiero. 2006. The Efficacy of Obtaining Genetic-Based Identifications from Putative Wolverine Snow Tracks. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34:1326-1334.
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Ray S. Vinkey, Michael K. Schwartz, Kevin S. Mckelvey, Kerry R. Foresman, Kristine L. Pilgrim, Brian J. Giddings, and Eric C. Loth. 2006. When Reintroductions are Augmentations: The Genetic Legacy of Fishers. (Martes Pennanti) in Montana. Journal of Mammalogy, 87(2):265-271.
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William J. Zielinski, Fredrick V. Schlexer, Kristine L. Pilgrim and Michael K. Schwartz 2006. The Efficacy of Wire and Glue Hair Snares in Identifying Mesocarnivores. The Wildlife Society Bulletin 34(4):1152-1161.
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Michael K. Schwartz, Samuel A. Cushman, Kevin S. McKelvey, Jim Hayden, and Cory Engkjer. 2006. Detecting genotyping errors and describing American black bear movement in northern Idaho. Ursus 17(2):138-148.
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Kristine L. Pilgrim, William J. Zielinski, Mary J. Mazurek, Fredrick V. Schlexer and Michael K. Schwartz 2006. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers in the Point Arena mountain beaver Aplodontia rufa nigra. Molecular Ecology Notes (2006).
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Roman Biek, Naomi Akamine, Michael K. Schwartz, Toni K. Ruth, Kerry M. Murphy and Mary Poss. 2006. Genetic consequences of sex-biased dispersal in a solitary carnivore: Yellowstone cougars. Biol. Lett. (2006) 2, 312-315.
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Biek, R., N. Akamine, M.K. Schwartz, T.K. Ruth, K.M. Murphy, and M. Poss. 2006. Long-term genetic effects of sex-biased dispersal in a solitary carnivore: Yellowstone cougars. Biology Letters 2: 312-315.
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Samuel A. Cushman, Kevin S. McKelvey, Jim Hayden, and Michael K. Schwartz. 2006. Gene Flow in Complex Landscapes: Testing Multiple Hypotheses with Causal Modeling. Am. Nat. 2006. Vol. 168, pp. 486-499.
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Biek R, Akaime N, Schwartz MK, Ruth TK, Murphy KM, and Poss M. 2006. Female philopatry leads to stable genetic population structure in wide-ranging Yellowstone cougars (Felis concolor). Biology Letters 2: 312-315.

Schwartz MK. 2005. Guidelines on the use of molecular genetics in reintroduction programs. European Union LIFE Nature Program, Caraminico, Italy
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S. S. Loew, D. F. Williams, K. Ralls, K. Pilgrim and R. C. Fleischer. 2005. Population structure and genetic variation in the endangered Giant Kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys ingens). Conservation Genetics 6(4) 485-654.
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Holthausen, R. Czaplewski RL, DeLorenzo D, Hayward G, Kessler WB, Manley P, McKelvey KS, Powell DS, Ruggiero LF, Schwartz MK, Van Horne B, and Vojta CD. 2005. Strategies for Monitoring Terrestrial Animals and Habitats. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-161. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 34p.
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McKelvey KS and Schwartz MK. 2005. DROPOUT: a program to identify problem loci and samples for noninvasive genetic sampling in a capture-mark-recapture framework. Molecular Ecology Notes 5: 716-718.
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Michael K. Schwartz, Katherine Ralls, Dan F. Williams, Brian L. Cypher, Kristine L. Pilgrim and Robert C. Fleischer. 2005. Gene flow among San Joaquin kit fox populations in a severely changed ecosystem. Conservation Genetics 6: 25-37.
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Michael K. Schwartz L. Scott Mills. 2005. Gene flow after inbreeding leads to higher survival in deer mice. Biological Conservation 123 413-420.
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K. L. Pilgrim, K . S. McKelvey, A . E. Riddle And M. K. Schwartz. 2005. Felid sex identification based on noninvasive genetic samples. Molecular Ecology Notes. 5, 60-61.
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McKelvey, K. S. and M. K. Schwartz. 2004. Genetic Errors Associated with Population Estimation Using Non-Invasive Molecular Tagging: Problems and New Solutions. J. Wildl. Manage. 68(3):439-448.
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Paul L. Leberg, Michael R. Carloss, Larry J. Dugas, Kristine L. Pilgrim, L. Scott Mills, M. Clay Green, and Daniel Scognamillo. 2004. Recent Record of a Cougar (Puma concolor) in Louisiana, with Notes on Diet, Based on Analysis of Fecal Materials. Southeastern Naturalist 3(4):653-658.
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Michael K. Schwartz, Kristine L. Pilgrim, Kevin S. McKelvey, Edward L. Lindquist, James J. Claar, Steve Loch and Leonard F. Ruggiero. 2004. Hybridization between Canada lynx and bobcats: Genetic results and management implications. Conservation Genetics 5: 349-355.
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Neil J. Gemmell, Michael K. Schwartz, and Bruce C. Robertson. 2004. Moa were many. Proc Biol Sci. 2004 Dec 7;271 Suppl 6:S430-2.
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M. K. Schwartz, L . S . Mills, Y. Ortega, L. F. Ruggiero and F. W. Allendorf. 2003. Landscape location affects genetic variation of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis). Molecular Ecology (2003) 12, 1807-1816.
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Riddle, A., K. L. Pilgrim, L. S. Mills, K. S. McKelvey, and L. F. Ruggiero. 2003. Identification of mustelids using mitochondrial DNA and non-invasive sampling. Conservation Genetics 4:241-243.
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Mills LS, Schwartz MK, Tallmon DA, and Lair KP. 2003. Measuring and interpreting changes in connectivity for mammals in coniferous forests. In: Zabel C, Anthony RG (eds.) Mammal community dynamics in Western coniferous forests: management and conservation in the new millennium. Island Press, Washington D.C., pp 587-613.
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Manel S, Schwartz MK, Luikart G, and Taberlet P. 2003. Landscape genetics: combining landscape ecology and population genetics. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18: 1807-1816.
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Michael K. Schwartz, L. Scott Mills, Kevin S. McKelvey. 2002. DNA reveals high dispersal synchronizing the population dynamics of Canada lynx. Nature Vol 415, 520-522.
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P. F. Kukuk, S . H. Forbes, R. Zahorchack, A. Riddle And K. Pilgrim. 2002. Highly polymorphic microsatellite markers developed for the social halictine bee Lasioglossum (Chilalictus) hemichalceum. Molecular Ecology Notes 2 529-530.
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Mills, L. S., K. L. Pilgrim, M. K. Schwartz, and K. McKelvey. 2000. Identifying lynx and other North American felids based on MtDNA analysis. Conservation Genetics 1(3):285-288.
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Spruell, P., K. L. Pilgrim, B. A. Greene, C. Habicht, K. L. Knudsen, K. R. Lindner, G. K. Sage, J. E. Seeb, and F. W. Allendorf. 1999. Inheritance of nuclear DNA markers in gynogenetic haploid pink salmon. Journal of Heredity 90:289-296.

Schwartz MK, Tallmon DA, and Luikart G. 1999. Using genetics to estimate the size of wild populations: many methods, much potential, uncertain utility. Animal Conservation 2: 320-322.

Michael K. Schwartz, David A. Tallmon and Gordon Luikart. 1998. Review of DNA-based census and effective population size estimators. Animal Conservation (1998) 1, 293-299.
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Pilgrim, K. P., S. H. Forbes and D. K. Boyd. 1998. Testing for wolf-coyote hybridization in the Rocky Mountains using mitochondrial DNA. Journal of Wildlife Management 62(2):683-689.
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Reports and Protocols