Sam Cushman, Ph.D.
Research Landscape Ecologist
Forest and Woodlands Ecosystems Program
Rocky Mountain Research Station
800 E. Beckwith Ave.
Missoula MT 59801
E-mail: scushman [at] fs.fed.us
Genetics Lab Website: www.fs.fed.us/rm/wildlife/genetics/
B.S. Evergreen State College, Olympia, WA. 1995
M.S. Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA, 1997
Ph.D. University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, 2003
- McGarigal, K., S.A. Cushman, and S. Stafford. 2000. Multivariate Statistics for Wildlife and Ecology Research. Springer-Verlag, New York.
- McGarigal, K., S.A. Cushman, M. Neel and E. Ene. (in prep). Landscape Metrics: A Comprehensive Guide to their Use and Interpretation.
- Huettman, F. and S.A. Cushman. (in prep). Spatial Data and Mammal Ecology. Springer-Verlag, Tokyo. The scientist is co-editor of this volume and is contributing four original chapters.
Refereed Journal Articles
- Cushman, S.A., K. McKelvey, C. Flather and K. McGarigal. (submitted). Testing the use of forest communities to evaluate biological diversity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.
- Compton, B., K. McGarigal, S.A. Cushman and L. Gamble. 2007. A resistant kernel model of connectivity for vernal pool breeding amphibians. Conservation Biology.[PDF]
- Cushman, S.A., M.K. Schwartz, J. Hayden, and K. McKelvey. 2006. Gene flow in complex landscapes: Confronting models with data. American Naturalist 168: 486-499. [PDF]
- Schwartz, M.K., S.A. Cushman, J. Hayden, K. McKelvey and C. Engkjer. 2006. Detecting Genotyping Errors and Describing Black Bear Movement in Northern Idaho, USA. Ursus 17:138-148. [PDF]
- Cushman, S.A. 2006. Implications of habitat loss and fragmentation for the conservation of pond breeding amphibians: A review and prospectus. Biological Conservation 128: 231-240.
- Cushman, S.A., M. Chase, and C. Griffin 2005. Elephants in space and time. Oikos 109: 331-341. [PDF]
- Cushman, S.A. and K. McGarigal. 2004. Patterns in the species-environment relationship depend on both scale and choice of response variables. Oikos 105: 117-124.
- Neel, M.C., S.A. Cushman, and K. McGarigal. 2004. Behavior and stability of landscape metrics across controlled gradients of landscape structure. Landscape Ecology. 19:534-455.
- Cushman, S.A. and K. McGarigal. 2004. Hierarchical analysis of forest bird species-environment relationships in the Oregon Coast Range. Ecological Applications. 14(4): 1090-1105. [HTML]
- Grand, J., Buonaccorsi, S.A. Cushman, M. Mello, and C.R. Griffin. 2004. A comparison of predicted and observed bird and moth rarity hotspots in a threatened pitch pine - scrub oak (Pinus rigida – Querecus ilicifolia) community. Conservation Biology 18(4): 1063-1077.
- Grand, J. and S.A. Cushman. 2003. Multiple-scale analysis of bird-habitat relationships: breeding birds in a pitch pine-scrub oak (Pinus rigida-Quercus ilicifolia) community. Biological Conservation. 12(3):307-317.
- Cushman, S.A. and K. McGarigal. 2003. Landscape-level patterns of avian diversity in the Oregon Coast Range. Ecological Monographs 73(2):259-281.
- Cushman, S.A. and K. McGarigal. 2002. Hierarchical, multi-scale decomposition of species-environment relationships. Landscape Ecology. 17:637-646.
- Cushman, S.A. and D.O. Wallin. 2002. Separating the influences of spatial, environmental, and disturbance factors in forests of the Russian Far East. Forest Ecology and Management. 168 (1-3): 201-215.
- McGarigal, K. and S.A. Cushman. 2002. Comparative evaluation of experimental approaches to the study of habitat fragmentation effects. Ecological Applications 12(2): 335-345.
- Cushman, S.A. and D.O. Wallin. 2000. Rates and patterns of landscape change in the Sikhote-alin Mountains, Russian Far East. Landscape Ecology 15(7): 643-659.
- Cushman, S.A. and K. McGarigal. (in press). Landscape metrics and scales of resolution. Chapter 4 in K.V. Gadow, (ed.), Adaptive Design of Forested Landscapes: The Multiple Path Principle. Springer.
- McKenzie, D., C.L. Raymond, and S. Cushman. (in press). Modeling understory vegetation and its response to fire. In J.J. Millspaugh and F.R. Thompson, III, (eds.) Models for planning wildlife conservation in large landscapes. Elsevier.
- Cushman, S.A., K.S. McKelvey, and K. McGarigal. (solicited). Landscape fire and wildlife habitat. Chapter 5 in D. McKenzie and L.-K. Kellog (eds.) The Landscape Ecology of Fire. Springer.
- Cushman, S.A., K. McKelvey, C. Reagan, T. Demeo, and C. Vojta. (accepted). Landscape analysis of wildlife habitat. Chapter 6 in C. Vojta (ed.), USFS Wildlife Habitat Technical Guide.
- McKelvey, K.S., S.A. Cushman, M.K. Schwartz, and L. F. Ruggiero. (In Press). Wildlife monitoring across multiple spatial scales using grid-based sampling. Symposium proceedings, 8th Annual Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium, Monterey, CA, 2006.
- Cushman, S.A., K.S. McKelvey, and M.K. Schwartz. (In Press). Case Study I: DNA survey for fisher in Northern Idaho. In R.A. Long, P. MacKay, J.C. Ray, and W.J. Zielinski (eds). Noninvasive Survey Methods for North American Carnivores. Island Press.
- Cushman, S.A. and K. McGarigal. 2006. Multi-variate landscape trajectory analysis: An example using simulation modeling of American marten habitat change under three disturbance regimes. in J. A.: Bissonette, J. A., and I. Storch. Temporal Explicitness in Landscape Ecology: Wildlife Responses to Changes in Time. Springer, New York, New York.
- McGarigal, K. and S.A. Cushman. 2005. The gradient concept of landscape structure. Pgs. 112-119. in J.Wiens and M. Moss eds., Issues and Perspectives in Landscape Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- Cushman, S.A., D. McKenzie, J. Littell, and D.L. Peterson. (in press). A research prospectus for integrated landscape modelling. USDA For. Serv. Res. Paper RM.
- McGarigal, K., S. A. Cushman, and C. Reagan. (in review). Quantifying habitat loss and fragmentation: A protocol. USDA For. Serv. Res. Paper RM.