Index to Subjects and Species

NOTE: The links below will take you to the "top of the page" containing the related information just as if this were a paper document. You then will need to read down the "page" to find the information. To fine tune the links to point to the specific sentence or paragraph referred to would useful but also very time consuming. The decision was made to include the index in this form as a compromise.

Subjects

Page numbers for tables and figures are indicated in boldface.

biogeography

air pollution 132, 201
climatic effects 28, 37, 40, 65, 85, 91, 132, 150, 159, 166, 185, 201, 239, 262, 264
disjunct population 1, 27-28, 32, 40, 41, 65, 81, 166, 179, 187, 190, 201, 227, 230, 239, 246, 254, 258, 260
edaphic effects 68-69
elevational limits 40, 66, 67, 91, 145, 166, 208, 214, 220, 269
endemism 27, 28, 145-146, 157, 162, 164, 172, 220, 222, 225, 228, 258
fire ecology 65, 70-71, 189
infection centers (openings and satellite centers) 73, 77, 79, 128, 136, 137, 234
rare species 27, 45, 58, 80, 179, 222, 236, 256
refugium 28, 39-40
relationship with host distribution or plant community
   absent in moist-lowland tropical forests 24, 40, 67, 166, 220
   habitat type (potential climax species) 69-70
   principle of central distribution 28, 32, 187
   relation by successional stage of host 24, 70,
site quality effects 69-70
species diversity 1, 2, 27, 29, 77, 95, 139, 162, 271
stand history and density effects 28, 65, 70, 75, 128, 131-132, 136-137, 139, 189, 246, 257
topographic effects (slope position, steepness, and aspect) 67, 68, 128, 239

control and management

biological control 79-81, 85, 88, 133
chemical control 133-134
genetic resistance 134-135, 201
prescribed burning 70-71
pruning and broom removal 94, 138-139
rating system (DMR) 124, 125-128, 130, 135, 137-138
silviculture 58, 131, 133
   clearcutting 138, 189
   fertilization, watering, protection 139
   general guidelines 135-139, 182
   sanitation thinning 70, 137-138
   shelterwood 138
simulation models 137
species selection 138

distribution and occurrence

dual parasitism (several species on single host) 33, 35, 36, 195, 253
former distribution 27, 36, 38-40, 65, 132, 166, 187, 246, 263
multiple parasitism (several species in a single stand) 45, 205
range maps and tables
   British Columbia 248, 249
   California and Pacific Northwest 182, 198, 200, 224, 225, 228, 233, 242, 248, 250
   central and eastern Asia 32
   eastern United States and Canada 238a, 238b
   Europe, Africa, Asia 263, 268
   Hispaniola 194
   Mexico 31, 181, 193, 196, 211, 213, 214, 216, 220, 230, 231, 235, 240, 244, 253, 257, 259
   North America 29, 186, 188, 209, 237, 247, 251
   southwestern United States 191, 227, 255
   western Canada 187
   western United States 30, 84, 86, 87, 89, 180, 203, 206, 210
   World 28
sympatry 15, 24, 32, 33, 34, 35, 142, 144-146, 271

effects

(also see witches’ broom and localized infection)
cone and seed production 63, 128-129, 130
economic importance 1, 58, 123, 130-131, 137, 182, 195, 200, 224, 236
ecosystem structure and function 73, 127-128, 136, 139, 202
   fire hazard and effects 70-71, 128
   wildlife food 73, 75, 76, 78-79, 128
   wildlife habitat (foraging, cover, nesting) 73, 76, 77, 79, 128, 139
evolutionary significance 26, 70, 114
host-parasite physiology (tree disease) 63, 91-94, 113, 123, 125, 128, 130, 139, 239, 260
host growth 69, 94, 126, 127, 128, 132
host predisposition to infection by fungi 73, 81, 130-131
host predisposition to other mortality factors 79, 94, 131-132, 136
host survival 70, 94, 126-127, 128, 129, 131-132, 139, 215, 227
host vigor 69, 92, 94, 124, 125, 126, 139
old-growth stands 70, 127-128
wood quality 130-131

endophytic (haustorial) system

anatomy and morphology 113-114, 115, 116, 118-120
endophytic form (infection type) 62, 114
infected ray 113, 116, 117-119, 121-122
parasitized by fungi 88
primary haustorium 114, 115
sinker and bark strand 13, 114, 115, 116-118, 119, 120-121
ultrastructural features 120-121
vascular connection parasite to host 113, 118-121

ethnobotany and medicinal use

dyes 5
festivals and ceremonies ethnobotony 4
fodder 5
hair wash ethnobotony 4
honey 5
pharmacology ethnobotony 4
trap bait for porcupine 78

fruits and seeds

bicolored fruit 1, 108, 148
chlorophyllous endosperm and seeds 12-13, 20, 92
explosive fruit 8a, 8b, 12, 73, 75, 169, 256
dormancy 12, 20
fruit maturation 8, 18-19, 25, 67, 151, 264-265
fruit morphology and anatomy 7, 8, 10a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 19, 101, 108, 109, 110, 148-149
morphology 8, 11-12, 18-20, 108-109, 113, 159, 257
pre-dispersal embryo survival 19, 20, 67
polyembryony 8, 20, 40, 108
seed production and loss 9, 12, 76, 77, 85, 217
taxonomic value 141, 145, 148-149, 159
viscin 8, 11-12, 20, 108

genetics

breeding system 20, 23, 264
hybridization 24-25, 32, 141, 144, 271
isozyme and ITS gels 157, 163a, 163b
karyology 23, 149, 150
lethal gene 20
polymorphism 23, 25, 155-156, 158, 159, 164, 166
polyploidy 23-25, 271
ribosomal DNA 162, 163, 164
sex ratio 20, 21
taxonomic value 141, 149, 155, 162, 164, 169

host relationships

competitive host exclusion 33, 58, 145, 200, 231
extra-limital hosts 45, 59, 61, 62, 185, 200, 202, 223, 232-233, 236, 246, 265, 266-267
hybridization of hosts 25, 32, 189
incompatible hosts 62, 246
infection index (to rate host susceptibility) 43
natural hosts 23, 43, 44, 45, 46, 57, 189, 217, 267, 271
nonhosts 39, 43, 45, 58, 200, 208, 217, 223
parasitism of rare species 58, 179
rare hosts heavily infected 58
resistance 134-135
root parasitism 14, 73
specificity 25, 40, 43-45, 58, 136, 142, 144-146, 162, 164, 166, 178, 190, 250
susceptibility class 43, 46-50, 51-57
taxonomic value 141-142, 144-145, 151, 161

infection

artificial inoculation 3, 24, 45, 59-60, 62, 65, 135, 185, 200, 202, 232, 246
dispersal 1, 8, 10, 12, 40, 73, 74, 75-78, 136-137, 217, 234, 256-257
germination 11-13, 71, 93
holdfast 11a, 11b, 13, 93, 113
incubation 13, 14, 113-114
interception 8-9, 11
penetration wedge 8, 11, 13, 113
safe-site 8-9, 12, 73, 76-77
secondary infection 9, 63

life history and phenology

flowering group (direct and indirect flowering) 14, 18, 25-26, 150-151, 159, 161
flowering period 3, 14-15, 17-18, 24, 150-151, 159, 183
generalized life cycle 8, 9, 15-16, 18, 20, 93-95, 106, 110, 113-114, 123, 136, 150-151
intensification and spread 9, 40, 65, 73, 77, 136
life cycle classification 141, 150-151
life cycle length 13-14, 45
latency 13-14, 45, 95, 113, 115, 139, 151
resprouting of shoots 133-134
phenology 12, 15, 17-19, 24, 67, 150-151, 245
shoot abscission and successive fruiting 14, 25, 110, 134, 148, 239
species-specific life cycles 7-8, 75, 103, 110, 235
taxonomic value 7, 141-142, 145, 151
vectors 8, 12, 40, 73-78, 234, 256-257

nomenclature

classification and description 143, 160, 165, 170
   genus 1, 95, 141-142, 153, 160, 167-169, 173
   family 1, 167, 168, 169
   section 149, 157, 159, 161, 164-165, 169, 172
   species 142, 159, 161-162, 192, 209, 271
   subgenus 1, 25, 142, 151-152, 155-156, 161, 169
   subspecies 142, 146, 162, 189, 192, 245, 250
ecotype and variety 142, 266
host-specific races 142, 146, 162, 245, 248
host-form concept 2-3, 142, 144, 146, 162
special forms 142, 146, 178
species complex
   Arceuthobium blumeri 146, 153, 190, 198, 228
   Arceuthobium campylopodum 2-3, 145-146, 148, 162, 200-201, 211, 225, 233-234, 242, 244
   Arceuthobium gillii 3, 155-156, 159, 214, 228
   Arceuthobium globosum 192, 215
   Arceuthobium vaginatum 3, 146, 155-156, 159, 212, 250
taxonomic history 1-4, 141-142, 145, 153, 155, 234, 236

paleobotany and evolutionary biology

adaptations for parasitic habit 20, 92-93, 95, 97, 113-114, 118, 257, 260
adaptive radiation 23-24, 166, 271
dendritic pattern 25, 271
isolating mechanism 15, 24-25, 32, 40, 145, 271
specialization 20, 24, 95, 100, 113, 114, 122, 141, 271
coevolution 18, 23-24, 40, 70, 133
convergence 24, 27, 159, 161
divergence 24-26, 28, 145, 156-157, 159, 162, 164-167, 169, 172, 256
fossil pollen 15, 33, 36, 37, 38, 40, 166
ground sloth dung 38
macrofossil 23, 38
migration 24, 28, 32, 39-40, 66, 73-74, 164, 166-167, 189, 260, 271
neoteny 108, 110
packrat midden 39
phylogeny 24-25, 28, 95, 156-157, 159-161, 163-172, 222
Quarternary Period 28, 36-38, 40
   Holocene Epoch 36, 38-39
   Pleistocene Epoch 36, 39-40, 65, 166
related genera 24, 33, 36, 95, 102-104, 106, 108, 110, 114-115, 167-169, 271
relict species 24, 142, 164, 166, 172, 179, 260
speciation 23-24, 28, 32, 40, 145, 161, 164, 166
Tertiary Period 24, 36, 166, 172, 260, 271
   Eocene Epoch 33
   Miocene Epoch 23-24, 36-38, 40, 166
   Oligocene Epoch 36, 166
   Paleocene Epoch 166
   Pleiocene Epoch 27-28, 38-39

pathology, predation, and herbivory 5


arthropod predation and association 79, 80, 81, 131-133
chemical defenses 5
canker and decay fungi 85, 88, 131, 181, 183
fungal disease 81, 82, 83, 84-89, 133, 202
herbivory 5, 73, 75-76, 78-81
nutritive value of shoots 78-79
resin disease 88
seeds destroyed if ingested 73
smoke and air pollution effects 71, 132

physiology

apoplast 92, 121-122
carbon transport 92-94, 121
ecophysiology
   anther response to temperature and humidity 17
   response to light 246
   temperature 65, 67,
   water stress 91-92
flavonoid chemistry 152, 153, 161, 257
growth substances (hormones) 93, 133-134
host-parasite physiology 91-95, 113, 121-123, 133, 139
   incompatible reaction 62
in vitro culture 91, 93
mineral nutrition 92-93
nitrogen metabolism 93, 178
nutrient sink 92-94, 123
photosynthesis and respiration 12, 20, 92, 100
taxonomic value 141-142, 145, 151-152
tropism 13
water regulation by fruits 110
water relations and gas exchange 91-92, 94, 100, 110-111, 121

sexual reproduction

anthesis 14-15, 17, 150-151
embryo sac development 18-20
fertilization 17-18
pollination
   anemophily 15-17
   dispersal period 15, 17, 150-151
   disrupted by spiders 81
   entomophily 15-17, 79
   maximum dispersal distance 15-16, 32, 136
pollen germination and tube growth 17-18
meiosis 14, 18, 150-151

shoots and flowers

anther 1, 15, 17, 148
apical organization 95, 97, 98, 100
branching pattern 1, 3, 7, 25-26, 95, 147-148, 161, 167, 243
epidermis and cuticular epithelium 97, 100, 106, 107, 108, 110
flower morphology and anatomy 7, 10, 15, 19, 20, 23, 108, 148, 258
leaf anatomy and morphology 95, 99, 100
nectar and nectary 10, 15, 17, 148
pathology 24, 81-83, 85-86, 88
pedicellate joint 148, 256
primary vascular tissue 95, 100, 101, 102-103
   graniferous tracheary element 102, 121
pollen 15, 17, 81, 149
root-borne shoots 95, 113
secondary vascular tissue 1, 103, 104
   anomalous secondary growth (cambial variants) 1, 104, 105, 106, 108, 110
sexual dimorphism 15, 16a, 16b, 63, 147, 214, 234
shoot anatomy and morphology 7a, 7b, 10a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 12, 63, 95, 96, 97, 100, 101, 103-105, 111, 256
shoot distribution and habit 114, 139, 147-148, 239, 260, 264
size reduction and variation 1, 25, 95, 141, 147, 172, 264
sterile node 149, 195
stigmatic exudate 10, 15, 17
stomata 97, 100, 107-108, 110
taxonomic value 95, 141-142, 145, 147-148, 150-151
xeromorph and xerophyte 108, 111

witches’ broom and localized infection

broom formation (swelling and loss of apical dominance) 62-63, 93, 114, 234
characteristic of parasite species 62-63, 114, 145-146, 189, 205, 218, 224, 227, 239, 255, 257
effects on host 63, 70-71, 92, 94, 128, 136, 139, 145
evolutionary significance 15, 25, 172
localized infection without broom 63, 113, 145
non-systemic broom (infection) 62-63, 114-115, 145, 147, 195, 200
systemic broom (infection) 1, 62, 63, 113-115, 147, 161, 184, 189, 235
taxonomic value 151, 161
use by animals 73, 76-77, 79

Species

Page numbers for illustrations of mistletoe species are in boldface.
Abert squirrel 78-79
Abies (fir) 3-4, 11, 23, 27, 37, 43-45, 70, 78, 81, 118, 123, 130-131, 135, 146, 170, 173, 176-178, 181, 183-184
Abies amabilis 46-47, 49, 51, 59, 179, 181, 208, 245, 250
Abies balsamea 49, 51, 236
Abies bracteata 45
Abies concolor 21, 24, 32, 34, 36, 39, 45-48, 50, 59, 69, 70, 88, 93, 123, 126, 128, 130-131, 146, 178-179, 181, 200, 208
Abies concolor var. concolor 46, 51, 179
Abies concolor var. lowiana 46, 51, 179
Abies durangensis 46-47, 51, 146, 178-179,
Abies forrestii 269
Abies grandis 46-49, 51, 59, 88, 146, 178-179, 181, 198, 200, 208, 245, 250
Abies guatemalensis 48, 58, 184
Abies hickelii 58
Abies lasiocarpa 35, 69, 144, 179, 181, 246
Abies lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa 46-49, 51, 208, 245, 250
Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica 45-48, 50-51, 181, 208, 227
Abies magnifica 21, 46-47, 49, 51, 70, 81, 123, 129, 146, 182-183
Abies mexicana 58
Abies oaxacana 58
Abies pindrow 264
Abies procera 49, 51, 182, 244-245, 249-250
Abies religiosa 12, 48, 50, 63, 183-184, 217
Abies religiosa var. religiosa 46, 51
Abies religiosa var. emarginata 46, 51, 183
Abies vejari 34, 46-47, 50-51, 183
Agropyron spicatum 69
Alternaria alternata 82, 88
American marten 77, 79
American robin 74-75, 77
Angelopogon 104
Antidaphne 168-169
Antidaphne viscoidea 167
Antillean euphonia 76

Arceuthobium
   Arceuthobium (subgenus) Americana 143, 152-153, 155-156, 159-161, 163, 166, 169-170, 172 169, 170
   Azorica 170
   Campylopoda 26, 143-144, 149, 155-157, 159-161, 164-165, 169, 171-172, 220
   Chinense 170
   Globosa 170
   Minuta 144, 153, 155, 157, 160-161, 166, 169, 171
   Penda 170-172
   Pusilla 171-172
   Rubra 144, 160-161, 164, 171, 220
   Stricta 144, 160-161, 164, 171
   Vaginata 143-144, 149, 152-153, 155-157, 159-161, 164-165, 167, 169-172, 220

Arceuthobium abietinum
   control 135
   description 85, 178
   chemical characters 17, 93, 152, 164, 178
   fruits and seeds 11
   shoots and flowers 85
   distribution 45, 70, 178, 181, 184, 198
   effects 126, 128, 178
   host 45, 146, 178
   key 173, 176-179
   life history 7, 11-12, 21, 24, 74, 178
   nomenclature 142, 146, 172, 178, 181
   paleobotany 39
   pathology 85, 88

Arceuthobium abietinum f. sp. concoloris
   description 179
   chemical characters 151, 153, 157-158, 160
   distribution 27, 30-32, 179, 180, 181
   sympatry and dual parasitism 24, 33-34, 36, 181
   effects 183
   host 32, 44, 46, 51-54, 58, 62, 179
   key 179
   life history 13-14, 179
   nomenclature 143, 160, 171, 179
   pathology 80, 83, 88, 182
   specimens examined 321

Arceuthobium abietinum f. sp. magnificae
   control 182
   description 182
   chemical characters 151, 153, 157-158, 160, 164-165
   distribution 27, 30, 182
   sympatry 33
   effects 129, 182, 183
   host 44, 46, 51, 182
   key 179
   life history 13-14, 182
   nomenclature 143, 160, 164, 171, 182
   pathology 81, 83, 183
   specimens examined 323

Arceuthobium abietis-religiosae
   description 183, 183
   chemical characters 152-153, 156, 158, 160-165, 167, 169
   fruits and seeds 148, 183
   shoots and flowers 12, 26, 63, 147-148, 184
   distribution 24, 31, 45, 181, 184
    sympatry 33, 34
    effects 184
    host 44-46, 51, 183-184
    key 173
    life history 14, 19, 183, 220
    nomenclature 3, 143, 156, 160-161, 164, 167, 169-170, 183-184
    paleobotany 25-26, 161, 167
    specimens examined 323

Arceuthobium americanum
   control 71, 85, 133-135, 139, 189
   description 7, 10, 80, 88, 184a, 184b
   anthers and pollen 1, 10, 17
   chemical characters 4, 17, 152-153, 158, 160-161, 163-165, 167, 169
   embryo sac 18, 20, 109
   endophytic system 116, 117, 119
   fruits and seeds 7, 19, 100, 108, 109
   sexual dimorphism 147
   shoots and flowers 7, 10, 19, 26, 63, 80, 88, 100, 102, 147-148, 189
   distribution 2, 27, 30, 32, 61, 65, 67-70, 132, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189
   sympatry and dual parasitism 33-35
   effects 26, 63, 70, 77, 79, 125-132, 147, 151, 184-185, 189
   genetics 149
   host 24-25, 32, 44, 46, 52-58, 60-62, 151, 185, 187, 189, 227
   key 175
   life history 7, 9, 12-18, 20-21, 26, 32, 63, 65, 70, 73-74, 77-78, 81, 184, 185
   nomenclature 2, 143, 156, 160-161, 164, 167, 169-170, 184, 189
   paleobotany 25-26, 37, 40, 167, 189
   pathology 75, 78, 80-81, 83, 85, 88
   physiology 91
   specimens examined 324

Arceuthobium apachecum
   description 190, 191
   chemical characters 146, 152-153, 157-158, 160, 163-165
   plant size and growth habit 147, 190, 192
   distribution 27, 30-31, 146, 190, 191
   sympatry 33-35, 146
   effects 192
   host 44-46, 53, 60, 144, 146, 190, 196
   key 174-175
   life history 24, 190
   nomenclature 143, 157, 160, 164, 171-172, 190, 198
   pathology 83
   specimens examined 331

Arceuthobium aureum
   description 192
   chemical characters 152
   fruits and seeds 148
   shoots and flowers 148
   distribution 2, 146, 193
   effects 151
   key 175, 192
   nomenclature 192

Arceuthobium aureum subsp. aureum
   description 192, 192, 221, 258
   chemical characters 152, 171
   shoots and flowers 148
   distribution 193
   sympatry 32
   effects 63, 151
   host 44, 46, 56
   key 192
   life history 14, 19, 183, 192, 220
   nomenclature 4, 143, 170, 192, 193, 215, 220
   specimens examined 332

Arceuthobium aureum subsp. petersonii
   description 193-194
   chemical characters 152
   distribution 31, 193
   sympatry and dual parasitism 33, 35
   effects 194
   host 44, 46, 55, 56, 193
   key 192
   life history 193
   nomenclature 143, 170, 193-194, 215
   specimens examined 332

Arceuthobium azoricum
   description 258, 259a, 259b, 260
   chemical characters 152, 167
   shoots and flowers 258-260
   distribution 27, 258
   effects 259
   host 44, 258
   key 177
   life history 258
   nomenclature 1, 3, 143, 170, 258, 266
   paleobotany 26, 40, 260
   specimens examined 376

Arceuthobium bicarinatum
   description 10, 194
   chemical characters 151-153, 164-166
   fruits and seeds 10, 149
   shoots and flowers 148, 195, 230
   distribution 2, 166, 194, 222, 260
   sympatry and dual parasitism 32, 36, 195
   effects 195
   host 44-46, 56, 166, 194
   key 173
   life history 194
   nomenclature 3, 144, 164, 171-172, 194, 222
   paleobotany 40, 166, 172
   pathology 76
   specimens examined 332

Arceuthobium blumeri
   description 191, 195, 196
   chemical characters 146, 152-153, 157-158, 160
   shoots and flowers 148, 197
   distribution 27, 30-31, 146, 192, 196
   sympatry 33-34, 146
   effects 129, 192, 197
   host 44-46, 52-53, 60, 144, 146, 196
   key 174-175
   life history 196
   nomenclature 3, 143, 146, 157, 160, 171-172, 190, 192, 195, 198
   pathology 83
   specimens examined 333

Arceuthobium californicum
   description 197, 199
   chemical characters 152-153, 158, 160
   distribution 27, 30, 70, 146, 197, 198
   sympatry 33, 198
   effects 197, 198
   host 44-46, 53, 146, 197
   key 175
   life history 24, 150, 197
   nomenclature 3, 143, 160, 171-172, 190, 197-198, 228
   pathology 83
   specimens examined 333

Arceuthobium campylopodum
   control 134, 134-135, 201
   description 199, 242
   anthers and pollen 145
   chemical characters 4, 92-93, 152-153, 157-158, 160-161, 164-165
   embryo sac 18
   endophytic system 120
   fruits and seeds 145
   plant size and growth habit 145
   sexual dimorphism 147
   shoots and flowers 102, 145, 148
   distribution 27, 30-31, 61, 68-70, 145, 200
   sympatry and dual parasitism 33-35, 146, 200
   effects 70, 77, 79, 126, 128-132, 145-146, 199, 201
   host 25, 43-46, 53-61, 145, 199-200
   key 173, 176
   life history 7, 12-13, 21, 74, 77-78, 145, 150, 199
   nomenclature 2-3, 39, 142-145, 160-161, 164, 171-172, 198, 200-201, 233-234, 242, 244
   paleobotany 37
   pathology 75-79, 81, 83, 85
   physiology 91
   specimens examined 334

Arceuthobium chinense
   control 134
   description 260-261
   anthers and pollen 149
   chemical characters 167
   plant size and growth habit 25
   shoots and flowers 148
   distribution 27, 32, 261
   effects 26, 62, 261
   host 44, 261
   key 177
   life history 7
   nomenclature 4, 143, 170, 260-261, 269
   physiology 92
   specimens examined 376

Arceuthobium cyanocarpum
   description 10, 201,
   chemical characters 152, 158, 160, 164
   fruits and seeds 19, 101
   plant size and growth habit 147, 201-202
   shoots and flowers 10, 19
   distribution 27-28, 30, 41, 132, 201-202, 203
   sympatry 33-34
   effects 129, 204
   host 28, 44-46, 52-58, 60, 151, 198, 201-202, 227
   key 175
   life history 16, 71, 74, 78, 81, 201, 202
   nomenclature 3, 143-144, 160, 171-172, 201-202
   paleobotany 37, 39
   pathology 75, 78, 83, 202
   physiology 91
   specimens examined 338

Arceuthobium divaricatum
   control 134
   description 204, 205
    chemical characters 4, 152-153, 157-158, 160-161, 163-165, 169
   distribution 27, 30-31, 41, 65, 157, 205, 206
    sympatry 33, 35, 205
   effects 26, 131, 151, 161, 205, 207
   host 43-45, 47, 52-53, 144, 157, 161, 204, 205
   key 173, 175
   life history 32, 205
   nomenclature 143, 155, 157, 160-161, 164-165, 169, 171, 204-205
   paleobotany 26, 37-39, 172
   pathology 83
   specimens examined 341

Arceuthobium douglasii
   control 134-135
   description 81, 207a, 207b
   anthers and pollen 17
   chemical characters 93, 152-153, 157-161, 164-165, 169
   embryo sac 18, 20
   endophytic system 120
   fruits and seeds 159
   plant size and growth habit 207, 211
   shoots and flowers 81, 95, 102-103, 115, 148
   distribution 2, 27, 30-31, 65-69, 181, 185, 208, 209, 210, 211
   sympatry and dual parasitim 33-35
   effects 1, 26, 62-63, 69, 76, 79, 125-129, 131-132, 147, 151, 207, 211, 212
   ethnobotony 4
   genetics 150, 159
   host 24, 44-45, 47, 51-52, 57, 157, 208, 227
   key 173, 176
   life history 7,16, 18, 26, 63, 65, 73-74, 159, 207, 208
   nomenclature 144, 155, 157, 159-161, 164-166, 169, 171, 205-206, 211, 244
   paleobotany 25-26, 95, 159, 172
   pathology 75-76, 81, 83
   physiology 91
   in vitro culture 93
   specimens examined 344

Arceuthobium durangense
   description 211, 212
   chemical characters 152, 156, 158-161, 164-165
   fruits and seeds 149
   shoots and flowers 99, 102, 106
   distribution 27, 31, 211-212, 213
   sympatry and dual parasitism 33, 35
   effects 129
   genetics 149
   host 44, 48, 54-56, 212
   key 174
   life history 159, 211
   nomenclature 143, 156, 159-160, 164-165, 169, 171, 211-212, 250
   pathology 79-80
   specimens examined 350

Arceuthobium gillii
   description 213, 214, 229
   chemical characters 152, 155, 158-161, 164-165
   shoots and flowers 148
   fruits and seeds 148
   sexual dimorphism 147, 214-215
   distribution 27, 30-31, 214
   sympatry 33-34, 214
   effects 129, 215
   genetics 150
   host 44, 48, 53-55, 213-214
   key 174-175
   life history 14, 151, 159, 213
   nomenclature 3, 143, 156, 159-161, 164-165, 169, 171, 212, 214, 229
   specimens examined 350

Arceuthobium globosum
   description 215
   chemical characters 159, 165, 171
   epidermis 107
   plant size and growth habit 100, 147
   shoots and flowers 95, 97, 98, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105 106, 148
   distribution 146, 216
   sympatry and dual parasitism 253
   effects 151, 215
   host 215
   key 215
   life history 14, 151, 159
   nomenclature 164, 169, 171, 192-193, 215
   paleobotany 25, 37, 95

Arceuthobium globosum subsp. globosum
   description 33, 141, 215
   chemical characters 152
   plant size and growth habit 215-216
   distribution 27, 31, 216
   sympatry and dual parasitism 33-35
   effects 63, 151
   ethnobotany ethnobotony 4
   genetics 149
   host 44, 48, 53-55, 57, 215-216
   key 174, 215
   life history 21, 215
   nomenclature 143, 159, 170, 215
   pathology 80
   specimens examined 351

Arceuthobium globosum subsp. grandicaule
   description 216
   chemical characters 152, 156, 158-160
   endophytic system 117
   plant size and growth habit 147, 217, 252
   shoots and flowers 14, 147, 159
   distribution 31, 159, 216, 217, 269
   sympatry and dual parasitism 33, 36
   effects 125, 151, 217
   host 44, 48, 54-57, 217
   key 175, 215
   life history 216-217
   nomenclature 143, 156, 159-160, 170, 215-216
   pathology 80
   specimens examined 352

Arceuthobium guatemalense
   description 217
   chemical characters 125, 164-165
   fruits and seeds 149
   shoots and flowers 148
   distribution 2, 31, 164, 218
   sympatry 32
   effects 26, 62, 129, 147, 151, 217-218, 219
   genetics 149
   host 44-45, 48, 52, 144, 164, 218
   key 174
   life history 12, 63, 151, 217-218
   nomenclature 143, 164, 170, 172
   paleobotany 25-26, 164, 172
   specimens examined 353

Arceuthobium hawksworthii
   description 219a, 219b, 220, 221
   chemical characters 171
   sexual dimorphism 147, 219, 220a, 220b
   shoots and flowers 148
   distribution 2, 67, 220
   sympatry and dual parasitism 32, 36
   host 44, 48, 54, 56, 144, 220
   key 175
   life history 14, 19, 110, 183, 219-220
   nomenclature 4 143, 169, 171, 215, 218, 220
   paleobotany 40
   specimens examined 354

Arceuthobium hondurense
   description 221, 222
   chemical characters 151-153
   shoots and flowers 148
   distribution 2, 166, 220
   sympatry 32
   evolution and paleobotany 40, 166, 172, 222
   host 44, 48, 55-56, 144, 222
   key 173
   life history 222
   nomenclature 144, 171-172, 220-222
   specimens examined 354

Arceuthobium juniperi-procerae
   description 260, 261, 262
   chemical characters 152, 167
   distribution 3, 27, 40, 261-262, 263
   effects 262
   genetics 149-150
   host 44, 258, 261
   key 177
   life history 14, 19, 183, 261
   nomenclature 1, 3, 143, 169-170, 261, 266
   specimens examined 376

Arceuthobium laricis
   control 134-135
   description 181, 222, 223
    chemical characters 152, 158, 160
   sexual dimorphism 147
   distribution 2, 27, 30, 61, 223, 224
   sympatry and dual parasitism 33-35
   effects 26, 126-127, 129, 224
   host 43-45, 48, 51-61, 181, 200, 223, 227, 246
   key 176
   life history 7, 73-74, 223
   nomenclature 143-144, 160, 171-172, 222
   paleobotany 26
   pathology 75, 83
   specimens examined 354

Arceuthobium littorum
   description 224, 225a, 225b, 226
   chemical characters 145, 161
   shoots and flowers 145, 148
   distribution 27, 30, 41, 145, 224, 225
   sympatry 32, 145, 225
   effects 131, 225
   host 44, 48, 54, 56-57, 145, 224
   key 176
   life history 224
   nomenclature 143, 161, 171-172, 201, 224-225, 234
   paleobotany 37, 39
   pathology 88
   specimens examined 356

Arceuthobium microcarpum
   description 226
   chemical characters 152-153, 158, 160, 164-165
   sexual dimorphism 147
   distribution 28, 30, 41, 45, 67, 227
   sympatry 33-35
   effects 129, 132, 227
   host 28, 43-45, 48, 51-53, 60, 227
   key 175, 177
   life history 227
   nomenclature 143, 160, 164, 171-172, 202, 226-227
   paleobotany 40
   pathology 83
   specimens examined 356

Arceuthobium minutissimum
   description 263, 264a, 264b
   anthers and pollen 149
   chemical characters 152, 167
   plant size and growth habit 1, 25, 147, 236
   shoots and flowers 147-148, 102, 108, 264
   distribution 27, 32, 70, 264
   sympatry 32
   effects 1, 26, 62, 92, 127, 130, 147, 151, 265
   host 44, 264
   key 177
   life history 14, 14, 264-265
   nomenclature 143, 170, 263-264
   paleobotany 25-26
   pathology 76
   specimens examined 376

Arceuthobium monticola
   description 199, 228
   chemical characters 162
   distribution 27, 30, 146, 162, 228
   sympatry 33, 146
   host 44-45, 49, 51, 53, 55, 58, 146, 228
   key 175
   life history 228
   nomenclature 143, 162, 171-172, 190, 198, 228
   paleobotany 162
   pathology 83
   specimens examined 357

Arceuthobium nigrum
   description 16a, 16b, 229
   chemical characters 151-152, 156, 158-161, 165
   fruits and seeds 148
   sexual dimorphism 16, 147, 229
   distribution 27, 31, 45, 229, 230
   sympatry and dual parasitism 33, 35
   effects 129, 215
   host 44-45, 49, 53-57, 229
   key 174
   life history 14, 19, 151, 183, 229
   nomenclature 143, 159-161, 165, 169, 171, 228-229
   pathology 80
   specimens examined 358

Arceuthobium oaxacanum
   description 229, 230, 232a, 232b, 241
   fruits and seeds 149
   distribution 31, 45, 230, 231
   sympatry 32
   effects 230, 232
   genetics 149
   host 44-45, 49, 55-56, 229-230
   key 174
   life history 229
   nomenclature 144, 169, 171, 222, 229-230
   specimens examined 377

Arceuthobium occidentale
   description 226 , 231, 232
   chemical characters 145, 152-153, 158, 160-161, 164
   endophytic system 115
   fruits and seeds 145
   plant size and growth habit 145, 147
   shoots and flowers 14, 145
   distribution 27, 30, 45, 61, 145, 233
   sympatry 33, 200
   effects 63, 129, 145, 151, 232
   ethnobotony 4
   host 3, 44-45, 49, 54-62, 145, 231-233
   key 176
   life history 14, 73-74, 145, 150-151, 231, 233
   nomenclature 3, 143, 160-161, 171-172, 200-201, 231, 233
   paleobotany 37
   pathology and pathology 75, 81, 83, 88
   physiology 92-93
   specimens examined 359

Arceuthobium oxycedri
   description 260, 261-262, 265, 266
   anthers and pollen 36, 149
   chemical characters 4 152, 162-165, 167-169
   endophytic system 120
   shoots and flowers 2, 38, 92, 102, 108
   distribution 1, 4 27, 32, 36, 61, 67-68, 263, 266, 268
   sympatry 32, 266
   effects 266
   ethnobotany 5
   genetics 149
   host 44, 61, 265, 267
   key 177
   life history 8, 18, 74, 265
   nomenclature 2-4, 143, 164, 167-170, 173, 258, 261, 265-266
   paleobotany 36, 38, 166-167
   pathology 76
   physiology 91-93
   specimens examined 377

Arceuthobium pendens
   description 234
   chemical characters 152, 155, 157-158, 160-161, 164-165, 167-168
   plant size and growth habit 148
   sexual dimorphism 63, 234
   shoots and flowers 148
   distribution 31, 157, 164, 234, 235
   sympatry 32
   effects 63, 161, 234
   genetics 149
   host 44-45, 49, 52, 144, 157, 161, 164, 205, 234
   key 173
   life history 234
   nomenclature 3, 143, 156-157, 160-161, 164, 168-170, 172, 234
   paleobotany 164, 172
   specimens examined 360

Arceuthobium pini
   description 266
   chemical characters 167
   distribution 4 27, 32, 269
   effects 62, 269
   host 44, 269
   key 177
   life history 266, 269
   nomenclature 4 143, 170, 266, 269
   paleobotany 26
   specimens examined 379

Arceuthobium pusillum
   control 133-135
   description 62, 234, 235
   anthers and pollen 1, 17, 149
   chemical characters 93, 152-153, 157-158, 160-161, 163-166, 169
   fruits and seeds 159
   plant size and growth habit 25, 147, 236
   shoots and flowers 147-148
   distribution 2, 27-28, 38, 41, 45, 61, 70, 166, 187, 236, 237, 238-239
   sympatry 33
   effects 1, 26, 62-63, 77, 92-93, 128-129, 131, 147, 151, 161, 236, 239
   ethnobotany 4, 166
   host 28, 44-45, 49, 51-53, 57, 61-62,, 166, 236
   key 177
   life history 8, 12-14, 16, 18-19, 21, 26, 73-74, 77, 148, 151, 161, 235, 239, 264
   nomenclature 144, 155, 157, 160-161, 169, 171-172, 234, 236
   paleobotany 25-26, 38-40, 166, 172
   pathology and pathology 81, 83
   physiology 93
   in vitro culture 93
   specimens examined 360

Arceuthobium rubrum
   description 232, 240
   chemical characters 152-153, 165, 158-161, 164-165
   fruits and seeds 149, 159
   shoots and flowers 147-148, 241
   distribution 27, 31, 164, 240, 241
   sympatry and dual parasitism 33, 35
   genetics 149
   host 44, 49, 54-55, 57, 241
   key 174
   life history 241
   nomenclature 144, 156, 159-161, 164-165, 169, 171, 222, 230, 240
   specimens examined 364

Arceuthobium sichuanense
   description 269
   plant size and growth habit 25
   distribution 1, 4, 27, 32, 269
   sympatry 269
   effects 62, 147, 269
   host 44, 269
   key 177
   life history 269
   nomenclature 4, 143, 170, 269
   specimens examined 379

Arceuthobium siskiyouense
   description 241, 242
   chemical characters 145, 162
   fruits and seeds 145
   shoots and flowers 145
   distribution 27, 30, 145, 162, 187, 241, 242
   sympatry 33, 145, 242
   effects 151, 242
   genetics 149
   host 44, 49, 54-56, 145, 241
   key 176
   life history 241
   nomenclature 143, 162, 171-172, 201, 234, 241-242
   paleobotany 162
   pathology 83
   specimens examined 364

Arceuthobium strictum
   description 243
   chemical characters 152, 156-158, 160-161, 164-165
   sexual dimorphism 147, 243
   shoots and flowers 147-148, 243
   distribution 27, 31, 157, 164-165, 243, 244
   sympatry 33
   effects 129, 243
   host 44, 49, 55, 57, 157, 165, 243
   key 174
   life history 16, 21, 243
   nomenclature 144, 155-157, 160-161, 164-165, 169, 171, 243
   specimens examined 365

Arceuthobium tibetense
   description 269
   chemical characters 167
   fruits and seeds 148
   plant size and growth habit 25
   distribution 1, 4, 27, 32, 269
   effects 26, 147, 269
   evolution 26
   host 44, 269
   key 177
   life history 269
   nomenclature 4, 143, 170, 269
   specimens examined 379

Arceuthobium tsugense
   control 134-135
   description 182, 243, 244
   anthers and pollen 149
   chemical characters 93, 146, 152-153, 160, 162, 164
   epidermis 107
   shoots and flowers 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102-103, 106, 108, 245
   distribution 2, 45, 67, 70, 146, 181, 185, 247
   effects 130, 132
   ethnobotony 4
   host 43, 45, 146, 162, 181, 227
   life history 8, 12-13, 20-21, 63, 74, 245a, 245b
   nomenclature 160, 162, 172, 243
   paleobotany 37, 95
   pathology 78, 85, 88
   physiology 91, 93

Arceuthobium tsugense subsp. tsugense
   description 10, 245, 249
   chemical characters 146, 162, 249
   fruits and seeds 10
   shoots and flowers 10
   distribution 27, 30, 40, 61, 181, 246, 248a, 248b, 249
   sympatry 33, 249
   host 44-45, 49, 51-54, 57, 59-62, 146, 162, 245-246, 248-249
   key 176, 245
   life history 13, 245, 249
   nomenclature 142-143, 146, 162, 171, 245, 248-249
   paleobotany 40
   pathology 80, 83
   physiology 246
   specimens examined 365

Arceuthobium tsugense subsp. mertensianae
   description 249
   chemical characters 158, 162
   distribution 27, 30, 181, 250
   sympatry 33
   effects 250
   host 44, 49, 51-54, 57-58, 162, 250
   key 176-177, 245
   life history 245, 249
   nomenclature 143-144, 162, 171, 202, 249
   pathology 80, 83
   specimens examined 368

Arceuthobium vaginatum
   description 250
   chemical characters 159, 161, 165, 171
   plant size and growth habit 148
   shoots and flowers 148
   distribution 146, 251, 253
   effects 126, 131
   ethnobotony 4
   host 250
   life history 151, 159, 250
   nomenclature 2-3, 142, 144, 155-156, 159, 161, 169, 171, 250
   paleobotany 26, 37
   pathology 75

Arceuthobium vaginatum subsp. vaginatum
   description 33 , 212, 252
   chemical characters 151-152, 156, 158-160, 164-165
   sexual dimorphism 253
   shoots and flowers 14, 241
   distribution 27, 31, 146, 165, 251, 252, 253
   sympatry and dual parasitism 33-36, 253
   effects 125, 129
   ethnobotony 4
   genetics 149
   host 44, 50, 52-58, 165, 252
   key 174, 252
   life history 16, 159, 252
   nomenclature 143, 159-160, 165, 171, 250, 252
   pathology 80
   specimens examined 369

Arceuthobium vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum
   control 133-134, 136, 139
   description 14, 63, 212, 254
   chemical characters 423, 93, 152, 156, 158, 160, 163-165
   embryo sac 20
   shoots and flowers 255
   distribution 27, 30-31, 41, 61, 65-69, 146, 165, 190, 251, 253, 254, 255
   sympatry and dual parasitism 33-35
   effects 63, 69, 71, 76-79, 93, 125, 127-130, 132, 255
   ethnobotony 4
   host 44, 50, 52-56, 58, 61-62, 165, 254
   key 174-175, 252
   life history 8, 12-14,16, 21, 63, 65, 71, 73-74, 78, 81, 151, 254
   nomenclature 3, 143, 159-160, 165, 171, 198, 214, 250, 253
   paleobotany 38
   pathology 76, 78, 80-81, 83
   physiology 91, 93
   specimens examined 307

Arceuthobium verticilliflorum
   description 255, 256a, 256b, 256c
   anthers and pollen 149
   chemical characters 152-153, 156, 158, 160-161, 164-169
   fruits and seeds 8, 75, 148, 169, 256a, 256b
   shoots and flowers 26, 147-148, 184, 258, 256
   distribution 24, 27, 31, 256, 257
   sympatry and dual parasitism 33, 35
   effects 129
   paleobotany 25-26, 167, 256
   host 44, 50, 53-55, 256
   life history 8, 14, 74-75, 256
   key 174
   nomenclature 143, 156, 160-161, 167-170, 255-256
   specimens examined 375

Arceuthobium yecorense
   description 257
   fruits and seeds 153
   shoots and flowers 153
   distribution 27, 31, 258, 259
   sympatry 33
   host 44, 50, 54-55, 258
   genetics 149
   life history 258
   key 174
   nomenclature 143, 169, 171, 257
   specimens examined 375
Armillaria 131
Atkinsonia 14
Atta mexicana 79
Aureobasidium pullans 88

Balanophoraceae 167
Band-tailed pigeon 75
Berberis repens 69
Black-capped chickadee 75
Black-headed grosbeak 75
Blue grouse 75-76
Bradysia 16
Brevipalpus porca 81
Brown creeper 74
Buckleya 167
Bushy-tailed woodrat 79

Calamagrostis rubescens 69
Caliciopsis arceuthobii 81-84
Calycadenia 163
Carex 146
Cassin’s finch 77
Cedrus deodora 264
Chamaecyparis 265
Chamaecyparis thyoides 267
Chipping sparrow 77
Choristoneura occidentalis 132
Clarkia 172
Eucharidum (section) 172
Myxocarpa (section) 172
Skinnera (section ) 172
Clarkia biloba 172
Clarkia cylindrica 172
Clarkia dudleyana 172
Clarkia epilobioides 172
Clarkia lewisii 172
Clarkia ligulata 172
Clarkia rostrata 172
Clastoptera distincta 80
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides 82-83, 85-86
Coloradia pandora 132
Coniothyrium 85
Cooper’s hawk 76
Copidosoma bakeri 16
Cryptosporium pinicola 88
Cupressaceae 1
Cupressus 48, 217, 265
Cupressus arizonica 61, 266-267
Cupressus funebris 266-267
Cupressus lusitanica 61, 266-267
Cupressus macnabiana 61, 266
Cupressus macrocarpa 61, 266-267
Cylindrocarpon 82
Cylindrocarpon gillii 82-83, 85, 87
Cytospora abietis 85, 88

Dark-eyed junco 74
Dasypyga alternosquamella 80
Debregeasia hypoleuca 264
Deer mouse 78
Dendroctonus adjunctus 131
Dendroctonus brevicomis 131
Dendroctonus mexicanus 131
Dendroctonus ponderosae 131-132
Dendroctonus pseudotsugae 131, 136
Dendroctonus rufipennis 132
Dendroctonus valens 131
Dendropemon 24
Dendropemon pycnophyllus 36, 195
Dendrophthora 1, 23, 114, 167, 169
Dendrophthora bonaniae 269
Dendrophthora clavata 167
Dendrophthora cupressoides 269
Dendrophthora domingensis 167, 270
Dendrophthora epiviscum 270
Dendrophthora flagelliformis 270
Dendrophthora glauca 270
Dendrophthora mancinellae 270
Dendrophthora opuntioides 270
Dendrophthora podocarpicola 270

Elk 79
Endocronartium harknessii 131
Endothiella agregata 88
Epicoccum 85
Eremolepidaceae 18, 167-168
Euphrasia 121
Evening grosbeak 75-76

Festuca idahoensis 69
Filatima natalis 80
Finch 74, 76
Flying squirrel 77, 79
Fomitopsis officinalis 131
Fomitopsis pinicola 130
Formica fusca 15-16
Formica hemmorhoidalis 16
Franklin’s ground squirrel 78
Frankliniella hawksworthii 80
Fuchsia 172

Gaiadendron 14
Geometridae 132
Ginalloa 23, 167, 169
Ginalloa arnotiana 167
Golden-mantled ground squirrel 77
Gray jay 73-74, 77
Gray silky-flycatcher 75-76
Great gray owl 76
Great horned owl 76
Grouse 75-76

Hermit thrush 74, 77
Herpotrichia juniperi 81
Heterogaura heterandra 172
Hoppingiana 16
Hormiscium 85
House sparrow 75
House wren 77
Hylemya 16
Hydnoraceae 167

Ips 131
Ips confusus 131
Ips lecontei 131

Juglans hindsii 116
Juniperus (juniper) 24, 27, 38, 44, 67-68, 92, 166, 177, 265-266,
Juniperus brevifolia 40, 170, 177, 258-259
Juniperus communis 267
Juniperus drupacea 267
Juniperus excelsa 91, 265, 267
Juniperus foetidissima 267
Juniperus formosana 267
Juniperus icaina 267
Juniperus macropoda 265, 267
Juniperus oxycedrus 265, 267
Juniperus phoenicia 267
Juniperus procera 177, 261-262
Juniperus pseudosabina 267
Juniperus sabina 265, 267
Juniperus semiglobosa 267
Juniperus thurifera 266, 267
Juniperus tibetica 267
Juniperus turcomanica 267
Juniperus virginiana 61, 265, 267
Juniperus wallichiana 70, 74, 267

Keteleeria 24, 27, 44, 92, 170, 177, 269
Keteleeria evelyniana 134, 261
Korthalsella 1, 23-24, 95, 100, 102, 104, 108, 110, 114-115, 120-121, 167, 169
Korthalsella complantata 167
Korthalsella dacrydii 102, 270
Korthalsella lindsayii 167
Krameriaceae 102

Laetiporus sulphureus 131
Lambdina fiscellaria 132
Larix (larch) 23, 43, 44, 73, 130, 176, 181
Larix decidua 59, 61-62,, 223, 246
Larix kaempferi 59, 223
Larix laricina 49, 51, 62, 166, 236
Larix lyallii 223
Larix occidentalis 26, 34, 46-48, 51, 59, 62, 123, 126-127, 129-131, 134-135, 144, 176, 200, 222-224, 246
Least chipmunk 77-78
Long-eared owl 76
Loranthaceae 1, 5, 12, 14, 18, 24, 100, 102, 104, 169
Lyonia 166

Mesostigmata 80
Melanophila californica 131
Melanophila drummondi 131
Melanoplus devastator 79
Metasphaeria wheeleri 82
Mexican spotted owl 76
Misodendraceae 103-104
Misodendron 103-104
Mistle thrush 74, 76
Mitoura johnsonii 80
Mitoura spinetorum 79
Mountain bluebird 75
Mountain chickadee 74
Mourning dove 75, 77
Muhlenbergia montana 69
Mule deer 78-79
Myschilos 103

Nectria fuckeliana 88
Nectria macrospora 88
Neoborella 80
Neoborella tumida 80
Northern goshawk 76
Northern spotted owl 76
Notothixos 23-24, 167, 169
Notothixos leiophyllus 167
Notothixos subaureus 167
Nuytsia 14, 104

Olacaceae 102
Opilaceae 102

Pachystima myrsinites 69
Packrat 39
Paraphytopus arceuthobii 81
Patzea 36-37
Peridermium bethelii 88-89
Pestalotia heterocornis 82
Pestalotia maculiformans 82
Phainopepla 75-76
Phellinus pini 131
Philygria debilis 15
Phoradendron 1, 4, 23-24, 75, 95, 97, 100, 102, 104, 106, 108, 114,117-118, 167, 169, 262
Phoradendron californicum 120, 167
Phoradendron densum 24, 58
Phoradendron hawksworthii v
Phoradendron juniperinum 24, 58, 190, 205
Phoradendron macrophyllum 116
Phoradendron pauciflorum 24, 36
Phoradendron serotinum 167
Phyllostricta 85
Phyllotreta lewisii 16
Picea (spruce) 3-4, 23, 27, 37-40, 43-45, 63, 70, 130, 166, 170, 176-177, 211
Picea abies 59, 61, 144, 200, 236, 246
Picea balfouriana 269
Picea breweriana 40, 46, 49, 51, 58, 179, 228, 250
Picea chihuahuana 40, 45-47, 58
Picea engelmannii 28, 40, 45-49, 52, 58-59, 62, 67, 132, 177, 185, 189, 202, 208, 226-227, 246
Picea glauca 28, 39-41, 45-46, 49, 52, 59, 62, 123, 129, 166, 177, 185, 236, 239, 246
Picea likiangensis var. balfouriana (see Picea balfouriana)
Picea mariana 21, 28, 39-40, 45-46, 49, 52, 63, 70, 73-74, 77, 93, 123, 128-129, 131, 133-136, 166, 177, 185, 234, 236, 239
Picea martinezii 45, 58
Picea mexicana 45, 58
Picea pungens 28, 34-35, 40-41, 45-48, 50, 52, 61-62,, 129, 177, 185, 208, 226-227, 236
Picea rubens 40, 45, 49, 52, 123, 166, 177, 236
Picea sitchensis 40, 45, 49, 52, 62, 246
Picea spinulosa 269
Pilostyles thurberi 147
Pine siskin 77
Pinus (pine) 23, 27, 37, 39, 43-45, 63, 75, 122-123, 130, 151, 170, 173-175, 177, 184
Diploxylon 23, 44-45, 165, 174-175, 192, 250
Haploxylon 3, 23, 44-45, 146, 164, 173, 175, 190, 218
Pinus albicaulis 45-49, 52, 62, 129, 144, 175, 185, 201-202, 204, 223, 250
Pinus aristata 28, 45-48, 50, 52, 175, 185, 201-202, 227, 254
Pinus arizonica 35, 46-48, 50, 129, 176, 215, 256
Pinus arizonica var. arizonica 34, 45, 48-50, 53, 214, 229, 252, 254
Pinus arizonica var. stormiae 50, 53, 252, 254
Pinus attenuata 43, 46-47, 49, 54, 145, 151, 162, 176, 185, 187, 199, 231, 241-242
Pinus ayacahuite 45, 47-50, 62-63, 129, 164, 217, 219
Pinus ayacahuite var. ayacahuite 45-46, 48, 52, 174, 218
Pinus ayacahuite var. brachyptera 45, 47, 52, 174, 179, 196
Pinus balfouriana subsp. balfouriana 47, 52, 202
Pinus balfouriana subsp. austrina 58, 202
Pinus banksiana 25, 32, 45, 49, 54, 59, 61, 63, 67, 69-70, 74, 78, 123, 129, 131, 134, 136, 144, 166, 175, 185, 187, 189, 232, 236
Pinus bungeana 59, 232
Pinus californiarum subsp. californiarum 47, 52, 204-205
Pinus californiarum subsp. fallax 47, 50, 52, 204-205
Pinus caribaea 40, 59, 175, 232
Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis 36, 40, 48, 54, 67, 218, 220-221
Pinus cembroides 39, 43, 47-50, 52, 204-205, 243
Pinus chiapensis 45, 48, 58, 218
Pinus contorta 2, 9, 13, 21, 24-25, 32,35, 40, 58, 62-63, 67-71, 73-74, 77-79, 81, 88, 91-92, 116, 119, 123, 125-130, 132-137, 139, 144, 151, 175, 189
Pinus contorta var. contorta 10, 46, 49, 54, 146, 162, 176, 185, 187, 241, 244-246, 248-249
Pinus contorta var. bolanderi 48, 54, 224
Pinus contorta var. latifolia 34, 45-50, 54, 59, 185, 187, 200, 202, 223, 245-246, 250, 254-255
Pinus contorta var. murrayana 46-47, 49, 54, 179, 185, 187, 200
Pinus cooperi 21, 33-35, 45, 47-50, 54, 214-216, 229, 241, 252, 254, 256
Pinus coulteri 43, 47, 49, 54, 131, 145, 173, 176, 199, 231
Pinus culminicola 50, 52, 58, 252
Pinus densata 177, 269
Pinus discolor 46-49, 52, 164, 204-205, 234
Pinus douglasiana 48, 54, 212, 217
Pinus durangensis 21, 45, 47-50, 54, 211-212, 215, 217, 241, 252, 254, 256
Pinus edulis 26, 35, 41, 46-47, 50, 53, 131, 134, 204-205, 207
Pinus engelmannii 36, 45, 47-50, 55, 176, 214-215, 241, 243, 252, 254, 256
Pinus flexilis 28, 34, 39, 41, 45-47, 50, 53, 58, 60, 62, 74, 78, 81, 91, 129, 132, 151, 175, 185, 196, 201-202, 254
Pinus gerardiana 264
Pinus greggii 58
Pinus griffithii (see Pinus wallichiana)
Pinus halepensis 61, 233
Pinus hartwegii 14, 46, 48, 50, 55, 125, 127, 132, 217, 252
Pinus herrerai 35, 48-50, 55, 212, 214, 241, 252, 257
Pinus jaliscana 58
Pinus jeffreyi 25, 46-47, 49, 55, 58, 79, 123, 126, 128, 131-132, 134-135, 139, 145, 173, 176, 185, 187, 189, 199-201, 205, 228, 231, 241, 242
Pinus johannis 58
Pinus lagunae 58
Pinus lambertiana 3, 45-47, 49, 53, 62, 146, 175, 179, 197-200, 228
Pinus lawsonii 45, 48-50, 55, 217, 229-230, 252
Pinus leiophylla 34, 80, 129, 157
Pinus leiophylla var. leiophylla 45-50, 55, 212, 214, 229, 256
Pinus leiophylla var. chihuahuana 3, 21, 47-50, 55, 175, 212-215, 229, 243, 256
Pinus longaeva 39, 45, 47, 53, 175, 201-202
Pinus lumholtzii 48-50, 55, 135, 212, 214-215, 229
Pinus maximartinezii 58
Pinus maximinoi 48, 55, 217, 222
Pinus michoacana 45-46, 48-49, 55, 193, 212, 217, 229-230
Pinus monophylla 46-47, 53, 151, 204-205
Pinus montezumae 46, 48-50,56, 131, 193, 212, 216-217, 221, 229, 252
Pinus monticola 45-49, 53, 146, 162, 175, 179, 197, 199, 201, 223, 228, 246, 250
Pinus mugo 60, 185, 200
Pinus muricata 39, 46, 48,56, 88, 145, 161, 176, 224-225
Pinus nelsonii 58
Pinus oaxacana 45-46, 49,56, 193, 229-230
Pinus occidentalis 36, 40, 45-46,56, 166, 173, 194-195
Pinus oocarpa 35-36,, 46, 48-49,56, 173, 175, 193, 212, 220-222
Pinus orizabensis 49, 52, 164, 234
Pinus palustris 60
Pinus patula 45-46, 48-50,56, 135, 193, 217, 229, 252
Pinus pinaster 61, 200
Pinus pinceana 58
Pinus pinea 61, 232-233
Pinus ponderosa 2-3, 12, 14, 21, 23, 25, 35, 38, 41, 58, 60, 63, 66-71, 73, 77-79, 81, 91, 92, 93, 123, 125-132, 134-136, 138-139, 144-145, 189-190, 198-201, 205, 223, 231, 233, 241-242, 246, 253
Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum 34-35, 46-48, 50,56, 65, 176, 185, 189, 200, 202, 214, 254-255
Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa 34, 46-49, 56, 176, 185, 189, 200
Pinus praetermissa 58
Pinus pringlei 48, 56, 217
Pinus pseudostrobus 36, 45-46, 48-50,56, 131, 192-193, 212, 217, 221, 229-230
Pinus quadrifolia 47, 53, 204-205
Pinus radiata 39, 41, 48-49, 57, 60-61, 131, 145, 161, 176, 224, 232-233, 246
Pinus remota 39, 58
Pinus resinosa 49, 57, 60-61, 144, 166, 200, 223, 236
Pinus rudis 46, 48, 50, 129, 216-217, 252
Pinus rzedowskii 58
Pinus sabiniana 45, 47, 49, 57-58, 63, 73-74, 88, 93, 115, 120, 129, 145-146, 151, 176, 200, 231, 233-234
Pinus strobiformis 34-35, 45-48, 50, 60, 146, 174-175, 190, 196, 202, 227, 254
Pinus strobiformis var. strobiformis 47, 53
Pinus strobiformis var. potosiensis 47, 53, 196
Pinus strobus 49, 60, 166, 202, 236
Pinus sylvestris 35, 58, 60-61, 185, 200, 223, 246
Pinus teocote 45, 48-50, 57, 157, 212, 216-217, 228-229, 241, 243, 252, 256
Pinus thunbergii 61, 233
Pinus torreyana 58, 60, 232
Pinus virginiana 60, 232
Pinus wallichiana 27, 127, 130, 177, 263-264
Pinus washoensis 46 , 58, 200
Pinus yunnanensis 177, 269
Pinyon 3, 39, 43, 45, 58, 155, 157, 161, 173, 175, 204-205
Pityophthorus arceuthobii 80
Platycladus 265,
Platycladus orientalis 61, 266, 267
Platylygus mexicanus 80
Porcupine 78-79
Pseudotsuga (Douglas-fir) 23, 44, 130, 173, 176, 184
Pseudotsuga macrocarpa 58, 208
Pseudotsuga menziesii 24, 34-35, 45-50, 57, 60, 62-63, 65-66, 68-69, 73, 76, 79, 91, 93, 115, 120, 123, 125-129, 131-132, 134-135, 155, 157, 185, 205, 208, 212, 246
Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii 47
Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca 47
Psittacanthus 24, 36
Psittacanthus maracranthus 36
Purshia tridentata 69
Pygmy nuthatch 74

Quercus gambelii 69

Rafflesiaceae 147, 167
Raven 76
Razoumofskya 2
Red-backed vole 78
Red-breasted nuthatch 74
Red crossbill 77
Red squirrel 77-79
Ruffed grouse 75

Santalaceae 1, 102-104, 167-168
Santalales 97, 104, 167
Santalum 167-168
Santalum album 167
Saturniidae 132
Scolytidae 131
Scrophulariaceae 102
Sharp-shinned hawk 76
Sinapis 163
Song thrush 76
Sphaeropsis sapinea 88
Spider 81
Spinulaepollis arceuthobiodes 33, 36
Spruce grouse 75
Steller’s jay 74
Stemphylium 85
Stipa comata 69
Strunthanthus 24
Swainson’s thrush 74

Thripidae 80
Thuja 265
Tit 74, 76
Torticideae 132
Trombiformes 80
Tristerix aphyllus 97
Tsuga (hemlock) 3, 24, 43-45, 81, 123, 130, 176, 181
Tsuga canadensis 60, 246
Tsuga heterophylla 12, 21, 40, 46-49, 57, 63, 67, 70, 78, 85, 88, 91, 93, 123, 130, 132, 134-135, 146, 162, 176-177, 223, 243, 245-246, 248-250
Tsuga mertensiana 46-49, 57, 144, 162, 176, 177, 201-202, 223, 245-246, 249-250
Typhlodromus arceuthobius 80
Typhlodromus pusillus 81

Vaccinium scoparium 69
Vicia 163
Viscaceae 1, 4-5, 12, 18, 23-24, 100, 104, 108, 110, 113, 120-122, 155, 167-169
Viscum 2, 420, 23, 25, 95, 102, 104, 106, 108, 114-115, 117-118, 120, 167, 169, 262
Viscum album 4 15, 167, 185
Viscum articulatum 167
Viscum minimum 147

Warbler 74
Western bluebird 75
Western tanager 77

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