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Records 1 to 25 of 63 that match your search keyword EVOLUTION
AuthorANONYMOUS
Year1885A
TitleMISTLETOE ON THE OAK.
PublicationGARDENERS MONTHLY 27: 309-310.
GenusPHORADENDRON, VISCUM
Species
MajorkeyHOSTS, PHYSICAL FACTORS, EVOLUTION
MinorkeyCLIMATE
DistributionEUROPE, UNITED STATES
Abstract     MISTLETOE ON THE OAK. STUDENT INQUIRES "WHETHER THE MISTLETOE IS FOUND ON THE OAK IN THIS COUNTRY, AS IT IS NEVER FOUND ON THE OAK IN THE OLD WORLD?" THE FACT IS THE MISTLETOE HAS BEEN FOUND ON THE OAK IN A FEW RARE CASES IN ENGLAND OF LATE YEARS, AND THERE IS EVIDENCE THAT IT WAS ONE OF THE MOST COMMON OCCURRENCES IN DRUIDICAL TIMES - 2000 OR MORE YEARS AGO. THE GREAT PROBABILITY IS THAT THE MISTLETOE HAS NO OBJECTION TO ANY TREE, AND ITS OCCURRENCE ON PARTICULAR TREES IN PARTICULAR PLACES OR PARTICULAR CENTURIES DEPENDS ON CLIMATAL CAUSES. IN TEXAS OUR MISTLETOE IS FOUND CHIEFLY ON THE MESQUIT; IN VIRGINIA AND NORTH CAROLINA ON THE ELM; IN DELAWARE AND MARYLAND ON THE PERSIMMON; IN CANADA ON THE POPLAR. IT PROBABLY REQUIRES PECULIAR CLIMATIC CONDITIONS AT THE GERMINATING SEASON, AND THESE CONDITIONS CAN BE MADE MORE EFFECTIVE ON CERTAIN TREES THAN ON OTHERS. SOME TREES WILL BETTER AID THESE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS THAN OTHERS, AND IF CLIMATE CHANGES IN ANY ONE PLACE, ANOTHER KIND OF TREE WILL THEN FAVOR THE CONDITIONS BETTER THAN THE ONE WHICH FORMERLY FILLED THE POST OF ASSISSTANT TO NATURE. NOW CLIMATES MUST OF NECESSITY CHANGE, AND THE CLIMATE OF GREAT BRITAIN CANNOT POSSIBLY BE THE SAME AS WHEN THE DRUIDS CUT THE MISTLETOE FROM THE OAK TREES; AND WITH THE CLIMATIC CHANGE THERE WILL NATURALLY BE A CHANGE OF TREE BY THE MISTLETOE TO SUIT NEW CONDITIONS.
CitationANONYMOUS 1885A. MISTLETOE ON THE OAK. GARDENERS MONTHLY 27: 309-310.
Record Id373

AuthorATSATT, P. R.
Year1979
TitleON THE EVOLUTION OF LEAF RESEMBLANCE BETWEEN MISTLETOE AND THEIR HOSTS.
PublicationP. 59-72, IN, PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PARASITIC WEEDS, L. J. MUSSELMAN, L. J. WORSHAM, AND R. E. EPLEE, EDS. NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIV., RALEIGH, N. C., 296P.
GenusOTHER
Species
MajorkeyEVOLUTION, PARASITISM, BIOTIC FACTORS
MinorkeyANIMALS, MIMICRY, INSECTS, BIRDS
DistributionAUSTRALIA
Abstract     THE HYPOTHESIS THAT HOST MIMICRY PROVIDES PROTECTIVE VEGATATIVE CONCEALMENT FROM HERBIVORE WAS TESTED DURING A THREE MONTH FIELD STUDY OF AUSTRALIAN MISTLETOES. I WAS UNABLE TO IDENTIFY A SINGLE EXTANT HERBIVORE THAT FEEDS DIFFERENTIALLY ON MIMICS AND NON-MIMICS, AND THUS REJECT THE HYPOTHESIS THAT ESCAPE FROM HERBIVORY IS A FUNDAMENTAL CAUSE OF THE EVOLUTION OF HOST RESEMBLANCE. FIELD OBSERVATIONS SUGGEST INSTEAD THAT HOST PLANTS DIRECTLY INFLUENCE THE EVOLUTION OF MISTLETOE LEAF SIZE AND SHAPE. HOSTS WITH STRONG EPIGENETIC HORMONAL CONTROL OF LEAF SHAPE ARE HYPOTHESIZED TO EXERT SIMILAR INFLUENCE ON MISTLETOE LEAF DEVELOPRMENT DURING A PERIOD OF DEVELOPMENTAL INSTABILITY RESULTING FROM HOST ADAPTION. IF SELECTION FOR MIMICRY DOES NOT OCCUR DURING THIS PERIOD OF GENETIC REORGANIZATION, A LEAF PHENOTYPE WITH ONLY WEAK RESEMBLANCE TO THE HOST MAY RESULT. MORE PRECISE HOST MIMICRY IS HYPOTHESIZED TO INCREASE INDIVIDUAL FITNESS BY CAUSING FRUGIVORES TO DISPERSE SEEDS TO UNOCCUPIED INDIVIDUALS OF THE HOST POPULATION.
CitationATSATT, P. R. 1979. ON THE EVOLUTION OF LEAF RESEMBLANCE BETWEEN MISTLETOE AND THEIR HOSTS. P. 59-72, IN, PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PARASITIC WEEDS, L. J. MUSSELMAN, L. J. WORSHAM, AND R. E. EPLEE, EDS. NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIV., RALEIGH, N. C., 296P.
Record Id969

AuthorATSATT, P. R.
Year1983A
TitleHOST-PARASITE INTERACTIONS IN HIGHER PLANTS.
PublicationIN, ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. NEW SERIES. VOLUME 12C. PHYSIOLOGICAL PLANT ECOLOGY III. RESPONSE TO THE CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT (EDITED BY LANGE, O. L.; NOBEL, P. D.; OSMOND, C. B.; ZIEGLER, H.). BERLIN; SPRINGER-VERLAG, P. 519-535.
GenusARCEUTHOBIUM, GENERAL
Species
MajorkeyHOST-PARASITE PHYSIOLOGY, PARASITISM, PHYSIOLOGY, HOSTS, RESISTANCE, EVOLUTION
MinorkeyMINERALS, POTASSIUM, PHOSPHORUS, MIMICRY, AMINO ACIDS, DNA, HORMONES
DistributionGENERAL
Abstract     REVIEW OF HOST-PARASITE REACTIONS OF PARASITIC HIGHER PLANTS, INCLUDING THE MISTLETOES. SECTIONS ON WHY PARASITISM?, NUTRITION, HOST SPECIFICITY, HOST RECOGNITION AND RESISTANCE, AND UNUSUAL HOST EFFECTS. IN THE ABSENCE OF EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FOR THE "ECOLOGICAL ADVANTAGE" HYPOTHESIS, I HAVE SUGGESTED THAT THERE MAY BE NO FUNDAMENTAL ADVANTAGE TO BEING PARASITIC, BUT RATHER, THAT PARASITIC PLANTS WERE FORCED INTO THIS LIFE MODE AS A MECHANISM OF OVERCOMING DISEASE. THIS HYPOTHESIS GENERATES TWO PREDICTIONS: (1) THAT FOREIGN MICROBIAL DNA WAS THE ORIGINAL MECHANISTIC CAUSE OF HAUSTORIA-LIKE NEOPLASTIC GROWTHS, AND (2) THAT SELECTION QUICKLY FAVORED INDIVIDUALS ABLE TO COMPENSATE FOR THEIR NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY (DISEASE SYMPTOMS) BY ATTACHING TO A HOST (ATSATT 1973). COMMENTS ON NUTRITION: HAUSTORIA FORMING VASCULAR PLANTS ARE USUALLY CLASSIFIED AS EITHER HEMI- OR HOLO-PARASITES (FIG. 13.1), PRESUMABLY TO REFLECT THEIR DEGREE OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC DEPENDENCE ON THE HOST. WHILE THIS CLASSIFICATION IS PERHAPS USEFUL FOR EXTREME CASES SUCH AS THE LARGELY AUTOTROPHIC SPECIES OF RHINANTHOIDEAE AND THE COMPLETELY ACHLOROPHYLLOUS GROUPS, OTHER PARASITES ARE LESS EASILY PLACED IN THIS ARBITRARY SCHEME (FER 1979; OZENDA AND CAPDEPON 1979). PERHAPS THE MOST SIGNIFICANT PATTERN OF MINERAL TRANSFER IS THE VERY SUBSTANTIAL AND RELATIVELY CONSTANT (HOST-INDEPENDENT) UPTAKE OF POTASSIUM AND PHOSPHORUS BY DIVERSE TYPES OF PARASITIC PLANTS. HOST SPECIFICITY: THE CONVENTIONAL PRACTICE OF EVALUATING HOST SPECIFICITY BY COMPILING LISTS OF HOSTS UTILIZED OVER A SPECIES' ENTIRE RANGE HAS PRODUCED GREAT AMBIGUITY ABOUT THE SPECIFICITY OF VASCULAR PARASITES. SUCH EVALUATIONS (KUIJT 1979) INDICATE THE GENERAL PLASTICITY OF THE SPECIES, BUT USUALLY HAVE NO RELEVANCE TO A PARTICULAR POPULATION'S CAPACITY TO EXPLOIT ITS IMMEDIATE HOST-ENVIRONMENT. REID AND PARKER (1979) EXPRESS A SIMILAR CONCERN AND COMMENT ON THE REMARKABLE LACK OF ATTENTION GIVEN TO THIS PROBLEM IN THE LITERATURE. SPECIFICITY CAN BE EVALUATED ONLY IN TERMS OF THE PROPORTION OF VASCULAR PLANTS IN A PARTICULAR COMMUNITY THAT FUNCTION AS SUITABLE HOSTS FOR THE PARASITIC POPULATION IN QUESTION. POPULATIONS RESTRICTED TO ONE OR A FEW RELATED HOST SPECIES CAN BE CONSIDERED TO BE HOST-SPECIALIZED, WHILE THOSE UTILIZING MANY UNRELATED HOSTS ARE GENERALISTS. ECOLOGICAL FACTORS CANNOT BE OVERSTRESSED AS IMPORTANT DETERMINANTS OF PARASITE DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND SPECIFICITY (ROTH 1971; ROOM 1974; PARMETER 1978). THE RANGE OF HOSTS UTILIZED IS A PRODUCT OF NUMEROUS CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES OF BOTH HOST AND PARASITE, BUT IS FUNDAMENTALLY LINKED TO THE DIVERSITY OF SUITABLE HOSTS AND TO THEIR TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL AVAILABILITY. WITHIN EACH LOCAL REGION A DISTINCTION MUST BE MADE BETWEEN PRINCIPAL HOSTS WHICH SUSTAIN THE PARASITE, AND TO WHICH TO GENE POOL IS FUNCTIONALLY ADAPTED, AND MINOR HOSTS THAT ARE SPORADICALLY UTILIZED AS ENCOUNTERED. THE ABILITY OF A PARASITE TO GROW AND REPRODUCE ON ANOTHER PLANT IS NOT A SUFFICIENT CONDITION FOR ITS UTILIZATION AS A PRINCIPAL HOST, NOR FOR INCREASING ADAPTATION BY THE PARASITE. MINOR HOSTS ARE CLEARLY IMPORTANT TO THE MAINTENANCE OF GENETIC VARIABILITY, AND ASSUMING RANDOM DISPERSAL, WILL BE UTILIZED IN PROPORTION TO THEIR ECOLOGICAL AVAILABILITY AND CHEMICAL SUITABILITY. AS THE CONDITIONS WHICH PERMIT HOST "SAMPLING" DIMINISH, GENETIC VARIABILITY IS DEPLETED FROM THE POPULATION AND HOST RACES RESULT. HOST RECOGNITION AND RESISTANCE: HOST RECOGNITION IS DEFINED HERE AS THE SENDING OR RECEIVING OF STIMULI BY THE PARASITE THAT INCREASES THE PROBABILITY OF COLONIZING SUITABLE HOSTS. RECOGNITION PROCESSES OF ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE ARE THOSE WHICH REDUCE ERREVERSIBLE OR ENERGY-CONSUMING COMMITMENTS TO UNSUITABLE HOSTS; SUBSEQUENT CELL-CELL INTERACTIONS DURING HAUSTORIAL PENETRATION ARE PERHAPS BEST VIEWED IN TERMS OF HOST RESISTANCE. MORE COMMONLY, RESISTANCE IS THOUGHT TO BE ACHIEVED BY HOST CHEMICAL AND/OR PHYSICAL RESPONSE TO THE INVADING HAUSTORIUM. CERTAIN PONDEROSA PINES SUFFER SEVERELY FROM EVEN A FEW MISTLETOE PLANTS BECAUSE OF EXTENSIVE LATERAL SPREAD OF THE INTERNAL ENDOPHYTE. IN OTHERS, LATERAL GROWTH OF THE ENDOPHYTIC PORTION IS RESTIRCTED, BUT THE HOSTS MAY NEVERTHELESS BY VERY SUSCEPTIBLE TO INFECTION, AND DAMAGE RESULTS FROM THE ACCUMULATION OF EXCESSIVE NUMBERS OF MISTLETOE PLANTS (ROTH 1971, 1974). RESISTANCE TO INTERNAL SPREAD OF THE ENDOPHYTE IS APPARENTLY INDEPENDENT OF THE INDIVIDUAL'S SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFECTION, ALTHOUGH SIMILAR MECHANISMS MAY BE INVOLVED. UNUSUAL HOST EFFECTS: IF GENETIC VARIABILITY IN OTHER TRAITS IS SIMILARLY CANALIZED WITHIN NARROW PHENOTYPIC LIMITS, BUT LABILE TO THE CHEMICAL INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN HOSTS, THE POPULATION WILL CONTINUE TO GENERATE "TRIAL PHENOTYPES," WHICH MAY OR MAY NOT BE ADAPTIVE. THE HOST-LIKE LEAVES AND BRANCHING PATTERNS OF AUSTRALIAN MISTLETOES (BARLOW AND WIENS 1977) MAY HAVE INITIALLY BEEN EXPRESSED IN THIS WAY. THE AUSTRALIAN MISTLETOE LYSIANA SUBFALCATA GROWING ON BAUHINIA CARRONNII PROVIDES A STRIKING EXAMPLE OF A PUTATIVELY DIRECT HOST INFLUENCE (ATSATT 1979). ON THIS HOST THE NORMALLY OBLANCEOLATE TO BROAD SPATHULATE MISTLETOE LEAVES ARE EXTREMELY VARIABLE; IN A SAMPLE OF TWO MISTLETOE PLANTS 76% OF THE LEAVES WERE OF THE STANDARD SPATHULATE SHAPE, 23% EXHIBITED SOME DEGREE OF PARTIAL LOBING, AND 3% WERE NEARLY EQUALLY BILATERALLY LOBED, SIMILAR TO THE BILATERALLY LOBED HOST LEAVES. HORMONAL REGULATION OF LEAF FORM IS WELL KNOWN, AND IS ONE POSSIBLE EXPLANATION FOR THESE OBSERVATIONS.
CitationATSATT, P. R. 1983A. HOST-PARASITE INTERACTIONS IN HIGHER PLANTS. IN, ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. NEW SERIES. VOLUME 12C. PHYSIOLOGICAL PLANT ECOLOGY III. RESPONSE TO THE CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT (EDITED BY LANGE, O. L.; NOBEL, P. D.; OSMOND, C. B.; ZIEGLER, H.). BERLIN; SPRINGER-VERLAG, P. 519-535.
Record Id971

AuthorATSATT, P. R.
Year1987
TitleAN ENDOSYMBIONT MODEL FOR THE ORIGIN OF HAUSTORIA IN PARASITIC VASCULAR PLANTS.
PublicationXIV INTERNATIONAL BOTANICAL CONGRESS. BERLIN (WEST), GERMANY. 24 JULY TO 1 AUGUST 1987. ABSTRACTS, P. 211.
GenusGENERAL
Species
MajorkeyANATOMY, EVOLUTION, PARASITISM
MinorkeyROOT SYSTEM
DistributionGENERAL
Abstract     ACCUMULATING EVIDENCE FROM MY LABORATORY SUGGESTS THAT ALL VASCULAR PLANTS MAY HARBOR TWO ASSOCIATED INTRACELLULAR SYMBIONTS, A YEAST-LIKE FUNGUS AND A GRAM POSITIVE COCCID BACTERIUM. BOTH ORGANISMS ORIGINATE FROM WALL-LESS PRESCURORS 500 NM OR LESS IN SIZE, AND IN IN VITRO CULTURE, DEVELOP WALLS AND CONVERT TO FREE-LIVING ORGANISMS. THEIR ISOLATION FROM REPRESENTATIVES OF ALL NINE DIVISIONS OF VASCULAR PLANTS SUGGESTS THAT THEY ARE OF ANCIENT ORIGIN AND PLAY FUNDAMENTAL ROLES IN THE BIOLOGY OF HIGHER PLANTS. THE PRESENCE OF THESE FOREIGN GENOMES IS CONSISTENT WITH MY HYPOTHESIS THAT THE TUMOR-LIKE HAUSTORIA OF PARASITIC PLANTS ARE HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES INITIATED BY A COMMON MICROBIAL GENOME. THE SWOLLEN HAUSTORIUM IS SIMILAR TO SEVERAL PLANT HYPERPLASIAS SPECIFIED BY BACTERIA-BORNE PLASMIDS. THE FUNGAL-LIKE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HAUSTORIAL ENDOPHYTE COULD THEORETICALLY RESULT FROM LOCALIZED EXPRESSION OF THE NORMALLY REPRESSED FUNGAL GENOME. (ENTIRE ARTICLE).
CitationATSATT, P. R. 1987. AN ENDOSYMBIONT MODEL FOR THE ORIGIN OF HAUSTORIA IN PARASITIC VASCULAR PLANTS. XIV INTERNATIONAL BOTANICAL CONGRESS. BERLIN (WEST), GERMANY. 24 JULY TO 1 AUGUST 1987. ABSTRACTS, P. 211.
Record Id973

AuthorBANDE, M. B.; PRAKASH, U.
Year1986
TitleTHE TERTIARY FLORA OF SOUTHEAST ASIA WITH REMARKS ON ITS PALAEOENVIRONMENT AND THE PHYTOGEOGRAPHY OF INDO-MALAYAN REGION.
PublicationREV. PALAEOBOT. PALYNOL. 49:203-233.
GenusGENERAL
Species
MajorkeyPALEOBOTANY, EVOLUTION
MinorkeyTERTIARY
DistributionASIA, SOUTHEAST
Abstract     P.234 GENERA SUCH AS LORANTHUS CLEARLY INDICATE A TROPICAL TO SUB- TROPICAL CLIMATE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA DURING THE PALAEOGENE. P.226. TABLE LIST LORANTHACEAE LORANTHUS IN PALAEOGENE, AMYLOTHECA-MACROSOLEN IN THE NEOGENE. P.227. PALAEOGENE FAMILIES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA INCLUDE LORANTHACEAE.
CitationBANDE, M. B.; PRAKASH, U. 1986. THE TERTIARY FLORA OF SOUTHEAST ASIA WITH REMARKS ON ITS PALAEOENVIRONMENT AND THE PHYTOGEOGRAPHY OF INDO-MALAYAN REGION. REV. PALAEOBOT. PALYNOL. 49:203-233.
Record Id1192

AuthorBARLOW, B. A.
Year1981B
TitleTHE LORANTHACEOUS MISTLETOES IN AUSTRALIA.
PublicationECOLOGICAL BIOGEOGRAPHY OF AUSTRALIA, VOL , P. 55-574, (A. KEAST, ED.) JUNK PUBL., THE HAGUE, NETHERLANDS.
GenusOTHER
Species
MajorkeyEVOLUTION, CYTOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY, EPIDEMIOLOGY, ECOLOGY, HOSTS, PARASITISM, PALEOBOTANY
MinorkeyMIMICRY, CHROMOSOMES
DistributionAUSTRALIA
Abstract     THE LORANTHACEOUS MISTLETOES IN AUSTRALIA HAVE CLEARLY UNDERGONE A UNIQUE DEVELOPMENT IN RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN THE REGION. THEY HAVE GENERATED WIDE DIVERSITY, AND BECOME ESTABLISHED IN MOST HABITATS, INCLUDING THOSE OF THE ARID ZONE. A PARTICULAR FEATURE OF THEIR SPECIALIZATION HAS BEEN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH HOST SPECIFICITY, AND WITH IT, CRYPTIC MIMICRY OF THE HOST SPECIES. VARIATIONS IN THE HOST RANGE OF MIMICKING SPECIES MAY PROVIDE AN INDICATION OF VARIATION IN THE INTENSITY OF PREDATION. THE MIMICKED HOST MAY PROVIDE A KIND OF 'HIDING PLACE', FROM WHICH OTHER HOSTS MAY BE COLONIZED AT TIMES WHEN PREDATION PRESSURE IS LOW. RECENT CHANGES IN CLIMATE AND/OR PREDATOR DENSITY APPEAR TO HAVE RESULTED IN SLIGHT LOWERING OF HOST SPECIFICITY. THE AUSTRALIAN LORANTHS HAVE NEVERTHELESS RETAINED SUFFICIENT EVIDENCE OF THEIR WORLD-WIDE RELATIONSHIPS TO ALLOW UNDERSTANDING OF THE BIOGEOGRAPHICAL HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. THEY APPEAR TO BE A COMPONENT OF THE PALEOAUSTRAL FLORA WHICH WAS ANTECEDENT TO THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE SOUTHERN SUPERCONTINENT. THERE IS EVIDENCE OF MASSIVE INDEPENDENT SECONDARY RADIATIONS FOLLOWING THIS FRAGMENTATION, OF WHICH ONE HAS PRODUCED MOST OF THE PRESENT SPECIES OF THE AUSTRALIAN-INDOMALAYAN REGION.
CitationBARLOW, B. A. 1981B. THE LORANTHACEOUS MISTLETOES IN AUSTRALIA. ECOLOGICAL BIOGEOGRAPHY OF AUSTRALIA, VOL , P. 55-574, (A. KEAST, ED.) JUNK PUBL., THE HAGUE, NETHERLANDS.
Record Id1258

AuthorBARLOW, B. A.
Year1981C
TitleTHE AUSTRALIAN FLORA: ITS ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION.
PublicationIN FLORA OF AUSTRALIA, VOL. I:25-75. AUSTRALIAN BUREAU OF FLORA AND FAUNA, CANBERRA.
GenusDENDROPHTHOE, VISCUM, OTHER
Species
MajorkeyEVOLUTION, PALEOBOTANY, GENETICS, GEOGRAPHY
MinorkeyCHROMOSOMES
DistributionAUSTRALIA
Abstract     P. 28. STUDIES OF KARYOEVOLUTION INCLUDE THE LORANTHACEAE (BARLOW 1963). P. 40. LORANTHACEAE HAVE NOT RE-COLONIZED TASMANIA, SEEDS ARE BIRD DISPERSED BUT LIKELY DISPERSAL RANGE IS SMALL. DISPERSAL ACROSS THE TORRES STRAIT WAS PROBABLY OVER CONTINUOUS LAND. P. 43. ANCIENT ESTABLISHMENT IN THE AUSTRALIAN FLORA INCLUDES LORANTHACEAE. P. 50. IN THE LORANTHACEAE, THE AMYEMA GROUP OF GENERA WITH LARGE, X=9 CHROMOSOMES IS PAUPASIAN IN ORIGIN BUT HAS SPREAD AND DIVERSIFIED IN THE PHILIPPINE AND SUNDRA REGIONS. P. 51. IN LORANTHACEAE, TWO GROUPS OF GENERA APPEAR TO HAVE ENTERED THE AUSTRALIAN-PAPUASION REGION AS A RESULT OF THE CONTACT WITH THE INDOMALAYAN FLORA. THE DECAISNINA GROUP OF GENERA, WITH X=12 AND LARGE CHROMOSOMES, IS AN EXCELLENT EXAMPLE OF AN INDOMALAYAN STOCK IN WHICH ONE OR A FEW SPECIES OF SEVERAL GENERA HAVE REACHED THE REGION (BARLOW, 1981A). ONLY ONE GENUS, LYSIANA, HAS ORIGINATED IN THE AUSTRALIAN REGION AND UNDERGONE A LIMITED RADIATION INTO THE TEMPERATE AND ARID ZONES. DENDROPHTHOE, WITH X=9 AND SMALL CHROMOSOMES, IS CENTERED IN SOUTH-EAST ASIA AND IS REPRESENTED BY ONE WIDESPREAD SPECIES EXTENDING FROM INDIA TO SOUTHEASTERN AUSTRALIA AND BY A FEW YOUNG ENDEMICS IN NEW GUINEA AND NORTHERN AND EASTERN AUSTRALIA. P. 51. THE LORANTHACEAE AGAIN PROVIDE A LIKELY EXAMPLE OF THIS SEQUENCE. WHILE THE FAMILY IS UNDOUBTEDLY GONDWANAN, TWO GENERIC ALLIANCES APPEAR TO HAVE HAD A LONG HISTORY IN ASIA AND ONE OF THEM SECONDARILY IN AFRICA. THESE ARE THE DECAISNINA GROUP OF GENERA AND THE DENDROPHTHOE GROUP, DESCRIBED ABOVE. IT SEEMS PLAUSIBLE THAT THE ANCESTORS OF BOTH GROUPS REACHED LAURASIA VIA INDIA IN EARLY TERTIARY TIMES AND UNDERWENT EXTENSIVE SECONDARY RADIATIONS THERE. THE FORMER GROUP NOW COMPRISES MORE THAN 100 SPECIES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA AND INDOMALAYA, WHILE THE LATTER IS REPRESENTED BY ABOUT 100 SPECIES IN ASIA, THE MIDDLE EAST AND SOUTHERN EUROPE AND BY THE ENTIRE LORANTHACEAN FLORA OF AFRICA (ABOUT 300 SPP.). AS MENTIONED ABOVE, BOTH OF THESE GENERIC ALLIANCES HAVE ATTAINED A LIMITED REPRESENTATION IN AUSTRALIA AS RECOLONISERS SINCE THE MIOCENE. P. 55. MISTLETOES (AND MISTLETOE BIRDS) ARE ABSENT FROM TASMANIA, PROBABLY HAVING BEEN ELIMINATED BY COLD CONDITIONS DURING GLACIAL TIMES AND SUBSEQUENTLY PREVENTED FROM RETURNING BY THE BASS STRAIT SEA BARRIER (BARLOW, 1981A.).
CitationBARLOW, B. A. 1981C. THE AUSTRALIAN FLORA: ITS ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION. IN FLORA OF AUSTRALIA, VOL. I:25-75. AUSTRALIAN BUREAU OF FLORA AND FAUNA, CANBERRA.
Record Id1260

AuthorBARLOW, B. A.
Year1983A
TitleBIOGEOGRAPHY OF LORANTHACEAE AND VISCACEAE.
PublicationIN CALDER, M.; BERNHARDT, P., EDS. THE BIOLOGY OF MISTLETOES. NEW YORK: ACADEMIC PRESS. 19-46.
GenusARCEUTHOBIUM, DENDROPHTHOE, PHORADENDRON, VISCUM, GENERAL
Species
MajorkeyGEOGRAPHY, EVOLUTION, GENETICS, PALEOBOTANY
MinorkeyCHROMOSOMES, TERTIARY
DistributionGENERAL, MAPS
Abstract     THE TAXONOMIC DISTINCTION OF LORANTHACEAE AND VISCACEAE AS TWO FAMILIES OF INDEPENDENT ORIGINS IS BORNE OUT BY THEIR APPARENTLY INDEPENDENT GEOGRAPHIC HISTORIES. THE LORANTHACEAE ARE OLDER AND SHOW EVIDENCE OF A CRETACEOUS DEVELOPMENT IN GONDWANALAND. THE VISCACEAE ARE YOUNGER AND SHOW EVIDENCE OF A CRETACEOUS DEVELOPMENT IN GONDWANALAND. THE VISCACEAE ARE YOUNGER AND SHOW EVIDENCE ONLY OF A TERTIARY HISTORY INITIATED IN LAURASIA. SEVERAL FEATURES WHICH THE FAMILIES HAVE IN COMMON MUST THEREFORE BE PARALLELISMS OR CONVERGENCES THAT ARE ASSOCIATED WITH THE AERIAL PARASITIC HABIT. THESE INCLUDE THE SIMILAR MODIFICATIONS FOR SEED DISPERSAL, EMBRYO STRUCTURE, AND PERHAPS, SECONDARILY, SUCH FEATURES AS PREDOMINANCE IN TROPICAL FORESTS, ATTAINMENT OF LARGE CHROMOSOME SIZE AND TRENDS TOWARD DIOECY. THE EXTENSIVE AND RELATIVELY CONTINUOUS DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE TWO FAMILIES ARE FUNCTIONS OF THEIR DISPERSAL STRATEGIES, OF THEIR PARTIAL INDEPENDENCE OF EDAPHIC AND WATER REGIMES, AND OF THE DIVERSITY OF AVAILABLE HABITATS REPRESENTED BY THE DIVERSITY OF AVAILABLE HOSTS. BIOGEOGRAPHY OF LORANTHACEAE: A SUMMARY. THE LORANTHACEAE HAD ATTAINED A WIDE DISTRIBUTION IN GONDWANALAND BY MED-CRETACEOUS TIMES AND HAD GENERATED CONSIDERABLE MORPHOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHIC DIVERSITY. THE OPENING OF THE SOUTH ATLANTIC AND INDIAN OCEANS ISOLATED LORANTH STOCKS IN AFRICA-MADAGASCAR-INDIA AND SOUTH AMERICA-ANTARCTICA- AUSTRALIA-NEWK ZEALAND RESPECTIVELY. THE FORMER STOCK HAS YIELDED A LARGE NUMBER OF ENDEMIC, SPECIALIZED GENERA AND SPECIES IN AFRICA AND HAS GIVEN RISE TO A LIMITED RADIATION IN ASIA, FOLLOWING THE CONTACT BY INDIA. THE LATTER STOCK HAS YIELDED INDEPENDENT SECONDARY RADIATIONS IN AUSTRALO-PAPUASIA AND SOUTH AMERICA, FOLLOWING THEIR SEPARATION FROM ANTARCTICA. FINALLY, THE MIOCENE CONTACT BETWEEN AUSTRALO-PAPUASIA AND SUNDALAND HAS ALLOWED TWO-WAY EXCHANGE, WITH AUSTRALO-PAPUASIAN STOCKS EXTENDING TO SOUTH-EAST ASIA, AND STOCKS OF INDIAN-GONDWANAN ORIGIN REACHING AUSTRALIA. THE LORANTHACEAE ARE ONLY ONE OF A GROWING LIST OF OLD SOUTHERN FAMILIES FOR WHICH THIS BIOGEOGRAPHIC HISTORY MIGHT APPLY IN PART OR WHOLE. OTHERS INCLUDE FERNS AND GYMNOSPERMS (PAGE AND CLIFFORD, 1981); MYRTACEAE, RESTIONACEAE, PROTEACEAE (JOHNSON AND BRIGGS, 1975, 1981); CERTAIN POACEAE (CLIFFORD AND SIMON, 1981); CASUARINACEAE, GOODENIACEAE, EPACRIDACEAE, PITTOSPORACEAE (RAVEN AND AXELROD, 1974); AND OF COURSE NOTHOFAGUS. THE BIOGEOGRAPHIC STORY OF THE LORANTHS IS HARDLY UNIQUE; IN FACT, IT GAINS STRENGTH FROM ITS CORRELATION WITH OTHER BIOGEOGRAPHIC STUDIES. BIOGEOGRAPHY OF VISCACEAE: A SUMMARY. THE ORIGINS OF FIVE OF THE SEVEN GENERA OF VISCACEAE CAN BE TRACED TO EASTERN ASIA, IN SITUATIONS RANGING FROM TROPICAL TO TEMPERATE. FROM THIS CENTRE THE PATTERNS OF COLONIZATIONS OF THE OLD WORLD ARE CLEARLY APPARENT. FOR ONE OF THESE GENERA, ARCEUTHOBIUM, MIGRATION TO NORTH AMERICA VIA THE BERING LAND CONNECTION IS INDICATED; THIS HAS BEEN FOLLOWED BY A SIGNIFICANT SPECIES RADIATION IN NORTH AMERICA. FOR THE REMAINING TWO NEW WORLD GENERA, THE PHORADENDRON-DENDROPHTHORA ALLIANCE, A SIMILAR HISTORY CAN BE POSTULATED, AGAIN FOLLOWED BY SUBSTANTIAL SPECIES RADIATION, PRIMARILY IN THE AMERICAN TROPICS, BUT MUCH OF IT AT HIGHER ELEVATIONS. BECAUSE OF THE SIZE OF PHORADENDRON-DENDROPHTHORA ALLIANCE, ITS GEOGRAPHICAL ISOLATION IN THE NEW WORLD, AND ITS TROPICAL/WARM TEMPERATE DISTRIBUTION, THE PROGENITORS OF THIS GROUP MUST HAVE REACHED THE NEW WORLD EARLIER THAN THE ARCEUTHOBIUM. AN EARLY TERTIARY MIGRATION CAN BE SUGGESTED; WARM TEMPERATE AND SUBTROPICAL BIOTA UTILIZED THE BERINGIAN CONNECTION DURING THIS TIME (RAVEN AND AXELROD, 1974). BY THE MIOCENE THE EXTENT OF CONIFEROUS FOREST HAD INCREASED IN THIS REGION, AND ARCEUTHOBIUM MAY HAVE ATTAINED ITS MORE LIMITED DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH AMERICA. THE HOMOGENEITY AND HIGH SPECIALIZATION OF THE VISCACEAE, WHEN TAKEN TOGETHER WITH THEIR WORLD DISTRIBUTION, SUGGEST THAT THE HISTORY OF THE FAMILY IS PRIMARILY IN THE TERTIARY PERIOD. IT IS NOT NECESSARY TO INVOKE MAJOR CONTINENTAL DISPLACEMENT EVENTS TO EXPLAIN THE GEOGRAPHIC RELATIONSHIPS WHICH EXIST. PROGENITAL VISCACEAE WERE PROBABLY WIDESPREAD IN LAURASIA BY THE PALEOCENE, WHEN BROAD LAND CONNECTIONS WITH AFRICA AND NORTH AMERICA EXISTED. INDIA HAD SEPARATED FROM AFRICA-MADAGASCAR MUCH EARLIER THAN THIS (RAVEN AND AXELROD, 1974), AND BY THE BEGINNING OF THE TERTIARY PERIOD WAS APPROACHING THE LAURASIAN LAND MASS. IF THE VISCACEAE HAVE HAD A MUCH EARLIER HISTORY IN WESTERN GONDWANALAND, AND REACHED LAURASIA BY RAFTING WITH INDIA, THEN FIRM PHYTOGEOGRAPHIC EVIDENCE OF THIS PHASE HAS DISAPPEARED DURING SUBSEQUENT CLIMATIC EVENTS.
CitationBARLOW, B. A. 1983A. BIOGEOGRAPHY OF LORANTHACEAE AND VISCACEAE. IN CALDER, M.; BERNHARDT, P., EDS. THE BIOLOGY OF MISTLETOES. NEW YORK: ACADEMIC PRESS. 19-46.
Record Id1261

AuthorBARLOW, B. A.
Year1983B
TitleA REVISION OF THE GENUS NOTOTHIXOS (VISCACEAE).
PublicationBRUNONIA 6: 1-24.
GenusDENDROPHTHOE, OTHER
Species
MajorkeyHOSTS, PARASITISM, EVOLUTION, TAXONOMY, EMBRYOLOGY
MinorkeyHYPERPARASITISM, CHROMOSOMES
DistributionAUSTRALIA, MAPS
Abstract     NOTOTHIXOS IS A GENUS OF EIGHT SPECIES DISTRIBUTED FROM CEYLON, LOWER BURMA AND THE PHILIPPINES SOUTHWARDS AND EASTWARDS THROUGH THE MALESIAN REGION TO SANTA CRUZ ISLANDS AND SOUTH-EASTERN AUSTRALIA. IT IS DISTINGUISHED BY A DENSE AND CONSPICUOUS INDUMENTUM OF DENDRITIC, STELLATELY BRANCHED OR PELTATE HAIRS OR SCALES, AND BY LATERAL STEMS SUBTENDED BY TWO PROPHYLLS AND TWO CATAPHYLLS. THE BASIC INFLORESCENCE UNIT IS A SMALL CYMOSE CLUSTER SUBTENDED BY A PAIR OF SMALL BRACTS, AND CONFLORESCENCE EVOLUTION HAS INVOLVED THE AGGREGATION OF CYMULES, AND DEVELOPMENT OF INDETERMINATE CONFLORESCENCES FROM DETERMINATE ONES. THE ENTIRE GENUS HAS NOT BEEN REVISED PREVIOUSLY; FOUR NAMES ARE REDUCED TO SYNONYMY OF OTHERS FOR THE FIRST TIME HERE. NOTOTHIXOS CURRANII MERRILL, N. MERGUIENSIS DANSER AND N. SPICATUS KRAUSE ARE CONSPECIFIC WITH N. LEIOPHYLLUS SCHUMANN. NEW CHROMOSOME NUMBERS ARE REPORTED FOR TWO SPECIES: N. INCANUS (N = 13) AND N. SUBAUREUS (N = 12). EVIDENCE SUGGESTS THAT THE GENUS ORIGINATED IN THE MALESIAN REGION, AND THAT IT HAS REACHED PAPUASIA AND AUSTRALIA AS PART OF AN INTRUSIVE ELEMENT FOLLOWING MIOCENE COLLISION OF THE AUSTRALIAN AND SUNDRA PLATES. MAPS GIVEN FOR EACH SPECIES; HOSTS, IF KNOWN, ALSO LISTED. N. SUBAUREUS IS MOST COMMONLY PARASITIC ON LORANTHACEAE: AMYEMA, MUELLERINA AND DENDROPHTHOE.
CitationBARLOW, B. A. 1983B. A REVISION OF THE GENUS NOTOTHIXOS (VISCACEAE). BRUNONIA 6: 1-24.
Record Id1262

AuthorBARLOW, B. A.
Year1983C
TitleA REVISION OF THE VISCACEAE OF AUSTRALIA.
PublicationBRUNONIA 6: 25-57.
GenusKORTHALSELLA, VISCUM, OTHER
Species
MajorkeyGENETICS, TAXONOMY, HOSTS, PARASITISM, EMBRYOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY, EVOLUTION
MinorkeyHYBRIDS, HYPERPARASITISM, CHROMOSOMES, INTRODUCED
DistributionAUSTRALIA, MAPS
Abstract     AUSTRALIAN VISCACEAE COMPRISE 3 GENERA, VISCUM, NOTOTHIXOS AND KORTHALSELLA, AND 14 SPECIES. A FURTHER 2 SPECIES OF KORTHALSELLA ARE ENDEMIC TO NORFOLK AND LORD HOWE ISLANDS RESPECTIVELY. NONE OF THE GENERA AND ONLY 7 OF THE SPECIES ARE ENDEMIC TO AUSTRALIA. THREE SPECIES ARE DESCRIBED AS NEW, VIZ. KORTHALSELLA EMERSA, K. GRAYI AND K. LEUCOTHRIX. ONE SUBSPECIES IS DESCRIBED AS NEW, VIZ. K. RUBRA SUBSP. GEIJERICOLA. THERE ARE TWO NEW COMBINATIONS, VIZ. K. JAPONICA SUBSP. BRASSIANA (K. BRASSIANA BLAKELY) AND VISCUM WHITEI SUBSP. FLEXICAULE (V. FLEXICAULE BARLOW). THE BIOGEOGRAPHIC HISTORY OF THE FAMILY IN THE AUSTRALIAN REGION IS BRIEFLY DISCUSSED. HOSTS GIVEN FOR EACH SPECIES: VISCUM ARTICULATUM, OCCURS ALMOST WITHOUT EXCEPTION ON LORANTHACEAE AND OTHER VISCACEAE, V. BANCROFTI ON AMYEMA, AND V. WHITEI ON LORANTHACEAE. KORTHALSELLA BREVIARTICULATA ON DIOSPYROS AND CITRUS, ET AL., K. DISTICHA ON CITRUS, PRUNUS PERSICA, ET AL. DOT DISTRIBUTION MAPS GIVEN FOR EACH SPECIES.
CitationBARLOW, B. A. 1983C. A REVISION OF THE VISCACEAE OF AUSTRALIA. BRUNONIA 6: 25-57.
Record Id1264

AuthorBARLOW, B. A.
Year1987
TitleMISTLETOES.
PublicationBIOLOGIST 34(5):261-269.
GenusVISCUM, OTHER
Species
MajorkeyGENETICS, FOLKLORE, USES, EVOLUTION, PARASITISM, BIOTIC FACTORS, EMBRYOLOGY, EXTINCTION
MinorkeyMIMICRY, PHARMACEUTICAL, 01, 02, 03, BIRDS, INSECTS, ANIMALS, CHROMOSOMES
DistributionGENERAL, EUROPE, AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND
Abstract     EXCELLENT REVIEW ARTICLE ON THE MISTLETOES, FAMILIES OF MISTLETOES: VISCACERE, 7 GENERA WITH 350 SPECIES; LORANTHACEAE 65 GENERA WITH 850 SPECIES. MISTLETOE IN FOLK LEGEND MEDICINE. (GOLDEN BOUGH, BALDER MYTH, DRUIDS, USE IN MEDICINE). REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF MISTLETOE. A STUDY OF COEVOLUTION. THE ORIGIN OF AERIAL STEM PARASITISM. MISTLETOES AS MIMICS. THE EVOLUTION OF DIOECY IN VISCUM. MISTLETOES AND SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE BIOGEOGRAPHY.
CitationBARLOW, B. A. 1987. MISTLETOES. BIOLOGIST 34(5):261-269.
Record Id1268

AuthorBARLOW, B. A.; MARTIN, N. C.
Year1984
TitleCHROMOSOME EVOLUTION AND ADAPTATION IN MISTLETOES, P. 117-140.
PublicationIN, PLANT SYSTEMATICS, (W.F. GRANT, ED.), ACADEMIC PRESS, TORONTO.
GenusDENDROPHTHOE, VISCUM, GENERAL, OTHER
Species
MajorkeyGENETICS, PHYSIOLOGY, EVOLUTION
MinorkeyCHROMOSOMES, DNA
DistributionGENERAL, MAPS
Abstract     CHROMOSOMAL EVOLOUTION AND ADAPTATION IN LORANTHACEAE - A SUMMARY. DNA CONTENT CAN VARY IN THREE GENERAL WAYS (I) SUPERNUMERARY CHROMOSOMES, (II) POLYPLOIDY AND ANEUPLOIDY, AND (III) AMPLIFICATION OR DELETION OF SEGMENTS WITHIN CHROMOSOMES. IN THE LORANTHACEAE IT IS CLEAR THAT NOT ALL OF THESE STRATEGIES HAVE BEEN UTILIZED, AND THAT THEY HAVE BEEN UTILIZED SEQUENTIALLY RATHER THAN SIMULTANEOUSLY. SUPERNUMERARY CHROMOSOMES, FOR EXAMPLE, ARE UNKNOWN IN LORANTHACEAE, ALTHOUGH THEY OCCUR IN VISCACEAE (SEE BELOW), AND IN ABOUT 15% OF ANGIOSPERM SPECIES GENERALLY. POLYPLOIDY OCCURS AT A MUCH LOWER FREQUENCY THAN IN ANGIOSPERMS GENERALLY, AND BEING MOSTLY INFRASPECIFIC, THE EXISTING POLYPLOIDY MUST BE OF VERY RECENT ESTABLISHMENT. IT IS PRESUMABLY INVOLVED OCCASIONALLY IN THE GENETIC CONSERVATION OF LOCALLY ADAPTIVE BIOTYPES. ANEUPLOIDY (DYSPLOIDY), ON THE OTHER HAND IS THE ORIGINAL MECHANISM OF GENETIC CHANGE IN THE FAMILY, AND APPEARS TO HAVE BEEN RESTRICTED TO THE EARLY DIFFERENTIATION OF THE FAMILY IN GONDWANALAND. IT APPEARS TO HAVE GENERATED A LIMITED NUMBER OF KARYOTYPES WHICH HAVE SUBSEQUENTLY REMAINED UNUSUALLY CONSTANT. DYSPLOIDY PRESUMABLY ACCELERATED THE ISOLATION AND CONSERVATION OF DIVERGING ADAPTIVE LINES THROUGH THE RESTRUCTURING OF LINKAGE GROUPS. AMPLIFICATION OR DELETION OF CHROMOSOME SEGMENTS HAS BEEN THE MAJOR GENETIC AND CYTOEVOLUTIONARY STRATEGY IN THE FAMILY THROUGH A LONG PERIOD, EMBRACING THE DIFFERENTIATION OF MANY GENERA, SPECIATION WITHIN THE GENERA, AND LOCAL BIOTYPE DIFFERENTIATION WITHIN THE SPECIES. THE GENERAL TREND HAS BEEN TOWARDS AMPLIFICATION, AND HAS LED TO CHROMOSOME SIZES AMONGST THE LARGEST IN THE PLANT KINGDOM. SINCE AMPLIFICATION HAS APPARENTLY NOT INVOLVED LARGE SCALE CHANGES IN SATELLITE DNA OF HETEROCHROMATIN REPETITIVE DNA OF NUCLEOLAR ORGANIZING REGIONS, IT HAS PROINVOLVED THE MIDDLE REPETITIVE VARIETY. SEVERAL PHYSIOLOGICAL AND GENETIC EFFECTS OF AMPLIFICATION OF DNA CAN BE PREDICTED, INCLUDING CHANGES IN CELL SIZE, DURATION OF MITOTIC CYCLE AND RECOMBINATION RATE. THEY CAN OCCUR WITHOUT DISRUPTION OF EXISTING ADAPTIVE SEQUENCES OF FUNCTIONAL GENES. CHANGES SUCH AS THESE APPARENTLY HAVE BEEN OF SIGNIFICANCE IN THE LORANTHACEAE AS THEY HAVE SPECIALIZED IN DIFFERENT HABITATS AND ON DIFFERENT HOSTS. IN FACT, GENERAL AMPLIFICATION OF DNA IN STABILIZED KAROTYPES APPEARS TO HAVE BEEN THE MAJOR BASIS OF ADAPTIVE CHANGE IN THE FAMILY OVER PERHAPS 50 MILLION YEARS OF EVOLUTIONARY RADIATION. CHROMOSOME EVOLUTION AND ADAPTATION IN VISCACEAE - SUMMARY AND COMPARISON. IN GENERAL, PATTERNS OF CYTOGENETIC CHANGE IN VISCACEAE ARE SIMILAR TO THOSE IN LORANTHACEAE. THESE TWO GROUPS ARE NATURAL, IRRESPECTIVE OF THE RANK GIVEN THEM, AND THE SIMILARITIES THEREFORE REPRESENT PARALLELISMS. COMMON STRATEGIES INCLUDE DYSPLOID REDUCTION AND AMPLIFICATION OF DNA, WITH POLYPLOIDY HAVING A MINOR ROLE. DYSPLOID CHANGE IN VISCACEAE HAS BEEN MORE RESTRICTED THAN IN LORANTHACEAE, AND OCCURS PRIMARILY ASAN INFRAGENERIC PHENOMENON. IT HAS PROBABLY PERSISTED TO A LATER STAGE OF FDIFFERENTIATION THAN IN LORANTHACEAE. HOWEVER A STRICT COMPARISON AT THE GENERIC LEVEL MAY BE MISLEADING, BECAUSE THE VISCACEAE COMPRISE MANY FEWER GENERA WHICH ARE ON AVERAGE MUCH LARGER, AND THE DIFFERENCE MAY REFLECT DIFFERENT GENERIC CONCEPTS IN THE TWO FAMILIES. INCREASE IN CHROMOSOME SIZE HAS NOT BEEN STUDIED EXPERIMENTALLY, BUT PROBABLY HAS RESULTED FROM GENERAL AMPLIFICATION OF DNA OVER ENTIRE GENOMES. THESE TWO TYPES OF CHANGE MAY HAVE HAD THE SAME EVOLUTIONARY ROLES AS IN THE LORANTHS. POLYPLOIDY IS SOMEWHAT MORE FREQUENT IN VISCACEAE THAN IN LORANTHACEAE, AND APPEARS TO OCCUR SOMETIMES AT THE SPECIFIC LEVEL. HOWEVER, ITS INCIDENCE IS STILL COMPARATIVELY LOW, AND NO EVOLUTIONARY RADIATION APPEARS TO HAVE OCCURRED AT A POLYPLOID LEVEL. THE ADDITIONAL STRATEGIES WHICH HAVE BEEN DISCOVERED IN VISCUM ARE ALL LINKED TO THE ORIGIN OF DIOECY. IT APPEARS THAT DIOECY PER SE MAY NOT HAVE HAD A DRAMATIC EFFECT ON GENETIC VARIABILITY IN THE GENUS, BUT ITS ORIGIN HAS BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH CYTOGENETIC PHENOMENA WHICH HAVE BEEN IMPORTANT. DIOECY HAS BEEN THE MEANS OF ACHIEVING PERMANENT INTERCHANGE HETEROZYGOSITY AND ALSO OF ADAPTIVE FLOATING INTERCHANGE HETEROZYGOSITY. LINKED WITH THIS IS THE ACCUMULATION OF SUPERNUMERARY CHROMOSOMES. THESE FEATURES HAVE BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH A SECONDARY PHASE OF SPECIATION IN THE GENUS.
CitationBARLOW, B. A.; MARTIN, N. C. 1984. CHROMOSOME EVOLUTION AND ADAPTATION IN MISTLETOES, P. 117-140. IN, PLANT SYSTEMATICS, (W.F. GRANT, ED.), ACADEMIC PRESS, TORONTO.
Record Id1270

AuthorBARLOW, B. A.; WIENS, D.
Year1971
TitleTHE CYTOGEOGRAPHY OF THE LORANTHACEOUS MISTLETOES.
PublicationTAXON 20, 291-312.
GenusGENERAL
Species
MajorkeyEMBRYOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY, EVOLUTION
MinorkeyCHROMOSOMES
DistributionGENERAL, MAPS
Abstract     KNOWN CHROMOSOME NUMBERS IN THE LORANTHACEAE ARE REVIEWED AND 102 NEW RECORDS ADDED. THE BASIC NUMBER OF THE FAMILY IS X=12 AND THERE HAS BEEN PROGRESSIVE ANEUPLOID REDUCTION TO X=8. THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF THE FAMILY HAS BEEN UNDER TEMPERATE CONDITIONS IN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE, WHERE STOCKS WITH X=12 AND 11 BECAME ESTABLISHED IN TEMPERATE SOUTH AMERICA AND AUSTRALASIA. RAPID ANEUPLOID REDUCTION CONTINUED AFTER THE ESTABLISHMENT OF STRONG CONTINENTAL ISOLATION, ESTABLISHING NUMBERS OF X=9 AND 8 IN THE OLD AND NEW WORLDS RESPECTIVELY. MASSIVE SECONDARY RADIATION IN THE TROPICS HAS FOLLOWED, INVOLVING THE 12-, 9- AND 8-PAIRED STOCKS. INCREASE IN CHROMOSOME SIZE OCCURRED DURING THE TROPICAL RADIATION, PERHAPS COMPENSATING FOR LOSS OF RECOMBINATION POTENTIAL DUE TO ANEUPLOID REDUCTION. POLYPLOIDY IS A RARE AND RECENT PHENOMENON IN THE HISTORY OF THE FAMILY, BEING DOCUMENTED IN ONLY TWO CENTRAL AMERICAN TAXA. ONE OF THESE MAY BE AN AUTOPLOID.
CitationBARLOW, B. A.; WIENS, D. 1971. THE CYTOGEOGRAPHY OF THE LORANTHACEOUS MISTLETOES. TAXON 20, 291-312.
Record Id1271

AuthorBARTH, O. M.
Year1972
TitleCATALOGO SISTEMATICO DOS POLENS DAS PLANTAS ARBOREAS DO BRASIL MERIDIONAL-XI. LORANTHACEAE E OLACACEAE.
PublicationMEM. INST. OSWALDO CRUZ RIO DE JANEIRO 70, 49-61. BIOL. ABSTR. 56, NO. 24160, 1973.
GenusGENERAL
Species
MajorkeyEVOLUTION, PALEOBOTANY, PALYNOLOGY
MinorkeyQUATERNARY, TERTIARY
DistributionSOUTH AMERICA
Abstract     NO CLEAR SIMILARITIES WERE OBSERVED IN THE POLLEN MORPHOLOGY BETWEEN THE 2 FAMILIES. THE EVOLUTION OF POLLEN MORPHOLOGY IN THESE FAMILIES TRACES THE DEVELOPMENT TO PARASITIC FORMS. THIS CAN BE OBSERVED THROUGH DEFINITE AND CONSTANT POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF VARIOUS GENERA OF THE LORANTHACEAE. IN THE LORANTHACEAE IT IS POSSIBLE TO DIFFERENTIATE THE GENERA BY THEIR POLLEN MORPHOLOGY AND SOMETIMES, GROUPS OF SPECIES, BASED ON DETAILS AT EXINE STRUCTURES.
CitationBARTH, O. M. 1972. CATALOGO SISTEMATICO DOS POLENS DAS PLANTAS ARBOREAS DO BRASIL MERIDIONAL-XI. LORANTHACEAE E OLACACEAE. MEM. INST. OSWALDO CRUZ RIO DE JANEIRO 70, 49-61. BIOL. ABSTR. 56, NO. 24160, 1973.
Record Id1304

AuthorBERNHARDT, P.
Year1983B
TitleTHE FLORAL BIOLOGY OF AMYEMA IN SOUTH-EASTERN AUSTRALIA.
PublicationCHAPTER 5., P. 87-100. IN, THE BIOLOGY OF MISTLETOES (M. CALDER AND P. BERNHARDT, EDS.), ACADEMIC PRESS. SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA, 348 P.
GenusOTHER
Species
MajorkeyEVOLUTION, HOSTS, BIOTIC FACTORS, ANATOMY, EPIDEMIOLOGY, GENETICS
MinorkeyINTRODUCED, BIRDS, FLOWERS-FRUIT, POLLINATION, HYBRIDS, INSECTS
DistributionAUSTRALIA
Abstract     FACULTATIVE CROSS-POLLINATION, PROTANDRY AND POLLINATION BY BIRDS APPEAR TO PREDOMINATE IN AMYEMA SPP. DISTRIBUTED THROUGH SOUTH-EASTERN AUSTRALIA. SUB-CLEISTOGAMOUS OR INSECT-POLLINATED FLOWERS ARE UNCOMMON AND PROBABLY REPRESENT RECENT MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL MODIFICATIONS. MOST SPECIES SHOW SOME CAPACITY TOWARDS SELF COMPATIBILITY. HOWEVER, BREEDING SYSTEMS VARY AMONG DIFFERENT SPECIES AND AMONG POPULATIONS BELONGING TO THE SAME SPECIES. SELF-COMPATIBILITY APPEARS TO INCREASE AS HOST-TREE SPECIFICITY NARROWS. MOST POLLINATORS BELONG TO THE MELIPHAGIDAE (HONEYEATERS) BUT A CONDITION OF GENERALIST ORNITHOPHILY PREVAILS IN THIS MISTLETOE GENUS. A VISUAL CUE (THE MASSING OF OPEN FLOWERS ON A BRANCH) AND THE NECTAR FLOW ULTIMATLY DETERMINE THE EXTENT OF PATRONAGE BY BIRDS AND THEIR ULTIMATE EFFICACY AS DESSIMINATORS OF AMYEMA POLLEN. DANSER (1931) MAINTAINED THAT COMPETITION FOR BIRD POLLINATORS WAS AN IMPORTANT SELECTIVE PRESSURE WHICH ENCOURAGED SPECIATION IN PALEOTROPICAL LORANTHACEAE. EVIDENCE FOR THE SELECTIVE FORAGING OF HONEYEATERS ON SYMPATRIC, CO-BLOOMING POPULATIONS OF AMYEMA SPECIES IN SOUTH-EASTERN AUSTRALIA ADDS CREDENCE TO DANSER'S STATEMENTS. INTERSPECIFIC INCOMPATIBILITY GREATLY REDUCES THE POSSIBILITY OF INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDIZATION. HYBRIDS EXIST, BUT INTROGRESSION MAY BE LIMITED BY A SERIES OF PRE-ZYGOTIC AND POST-ZYGOTIC BARRIERS. WE SHOULD CONCUR WITH BARLOW (1966) THAT THE INFLORESCENCE OF AMYEMA PROBABLY EVOLVED VIA REDUCTION IN THE NUMBER OF FLOWERS IN COMPOUND UMBELS OF ANCESTRAL PLANTS. SELECTION FOR SMALLER INFLORESCENCES MAY BE THE RESULT OF ADAPTIVE RADIATION IN ARID HABITATS IN CONJUNCTION WITH COMPETITION WITH OTHER AUSTRALIAN ANGIOSPERMS WHICH EXPLOIT BIRDS AS POLLEN VECTORS.
CitationBERNHARDT, P. 1983B. THE FLORAL BIOLOGY OF AMYEMA IN SOUTH-EASTERN AUSTRALIA. CHAPTER 5., P. 87-100. IN, THE BIOLOGY OF MISTLETOES (M. CALDER AND P. BERNHARDT, EDS.), ACADEMIC PRESS. SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA, 348 P.
Record Id1523

AuthorCALVIN, C. L.
Year1967B
TitleANATOMY OF THE ENDOPHYTIC SYSTEM OF THE MISTLETOE, PHORADENDRON FLAVESCENS.
PublicationBOT. GAZ. 128: 117-137.
GenusARCEUTHOBIUM, PHORADENDRON
Species
MajorkeyANATOMY, EVOLUTION
MinorkeyROOT SYSTEM, SHOOTS-LEAVES
DistributionUNITED STATES, CALIFORNIA
Abstract     THE TISSUES COMPRISING THE CORTICAL HAUSTORIA AND SINKERS IN THE ENDOPHYTIC SYSTEM OF PHORADENDRON FLAVESCENS WERE STUDIED IN PLANTS PARASITIZING THE THE WALNUT, JUGLANS HINDSII. CORTICAL HAUSTORIA--LONGITUDINALLY ORIENTED STRANDS IN THE HOST BARK--HAVE A CENTRAL CYLINDER CONTAINING XYLEM AND PHLOEM INCLOSED BY A PARENCHYMATOUS CORTEX. THE XYLEM CONSISTS OF TRACHEARY ELEMENTS AND PARENCHYMA CELLS. THE PHLOEM CONSISTS OF SIEVE-TUBE MEMBERS, COMPANION CELLS, AND PARENCHYMA CELLS. CORTICAL HAUSTORIA HAVING SECONDARY GROWTH CONTAIN, IN ADDITION, FIBERS IN THEIR SECONDARY XYLEM. SINKERS--RADIALLY ORIENTED EXTENSIONS INTO THE HOST WOOD--OCCUR AT INTERVALS ALONG A CORTICAL HAUSTORIUM. EACH NORMAL SINKER CONSISTS OF THREE DISTINCT PARTS, (1) A PARENCHYMATOUS PART IMBEDDED IN THE HOST PHLOEM (2) A MERISTEM CORRESPONDING IN POSITION TO THE HOST CAMBIUM, (3) A PART IMBEDDED IN HOST WOOD AND COMPOSED OF TWO KINDS OF CELLS, PARENCHYMA CELLS AND TRACHEARY ELEMENTS, BOTH MORE OR LESS ISODIAMETRIC. ADDITIONALLY, MANY SINKERS HAVE A CENTRALLY LOCATED, RADIALLY ORIENTED STRAND OF VASCULAR TISSUE. THE XYLEM OF THIS STRAND EXTENDS FROM THE CORTICAL HAUSTORIUM TO NEAR THE END OF THE SINKER. THE PHLOEM, WHICH CONTAINS SIEVE ELEMENTS, ACCOMPANIES THE XYLEM FOR A SHORT DISTANCE, IT DOES NOT EXTEND TO THE MERISTEMATIC REGION. THE TRACHEARY ELEMENTS OF THE RADIALLY ORIENTED STRAND ARE CONNECTED WITH THE TRACHEARY ELEMENTS OF THE SINKER PART, WHICH IS IMBEDDED IN THE HOST WOOD. THE PARASITE ELEMENTS THAT OCCUR AT THE PERIPHERY OF THE SINKER ARE IN CONTACT WITH TRACHEARY ELEMENTS OF THE HOST, AND PITS AND PERFORATIONS MAY OCCUR BETWEEN THEM. THUS A CONTINUOUS CONDUIT EXISTS, CONNECTING TRACHEARY ELEMENTS IN THE HOST WITH THOSE IN THE CORTICAL HAUSTORIUM OF THE PARASITE. DURING GROWTH AT THEIR MERISTEMS SOME SINKERS BECOME PROGRESSIVELY SMALLER (NARROWER OR LOWER OR BOTH). SUCH SINKERS MAY BE DISPLACED FROM THE CAMBIAL CYLINDER, THUS THEIR PART WITHIN THE HOST WOOD BECOMES SEPARATED FROM THE CONTINUOUS ENDOPHYTIC SYSTEM. INCLUSION OF ISOLATED SINKER PARTS WITHIN THE HOST WOOD AND CERTAIN OTHER PHENOMENA SUGGEST COMPETITION BETWEEN PARASITE AND HOST FOR SPACE IN THE CAMBIAL CYLINDER. IN THE PART OF A SINKER IMBEDDED WITHIN THE HOST WOOD, THICK ACCUMULATIONS COMMONLY OCCUR IN PARENCHYMA CELLS ON WALLS THAT ARE IN CONTACT WITH TRACHEARY ELEMENTS OF THE HOST OR THE PARASITE. (PHORADENDRON TOMENTOSUM MACROPHYLLUM).
CitationCALVIN, C. L. 1967B. ANATOMY OF THE ENDOPHYTIC SYSTEM OF THE MISTLETOE, PHORADENDRON FLAVESCENS. BOT. GAZ. 128: 117-137.
Record Id2216

AuthorCARLQUIST, S.
Year1977
TitleECOLOGICAL FACTORS IN WOOD EVOLUTION: A FLORISTICS APPROACH.
PublicationAM. J. BOT. 64: 887-896.
GenusOTHER
Species
MajorkeyEVOLUTION, ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY
MinorkeySHOOTS-LEAVES, WATER RELATIONS
DistributionAUSTRALIA
Abstract     WOOD FLORULAS FROM SOUTHWESTERN AUSTRALIA WERE ANALYZED TO DETERMINE WHETHER WOOD ANATOMY IS SUFFICIENTLY CORRELATED WITH ECOLOGY SO THAT VESSEL ELEMENT FEATURES CAN BE SAID TO HAVE A PREDICTIVE VALUE. INDICES FOR VULNERABILITY (VESSEL DIAM: VESSELS PER SQ. MM) AND MESOMORPHY (VULNERABILITY X VESSEL ELEMENT LENGTH) WERE CALCULATED FOR EACH SPECIES IN THE FOLLOWING FLORULAS: KARRI FOREST UNDERSTORY, COASTAL GRANITIC SLOPES, BOGS, SAND HEATHS, AND DESERT. WOOD INDICES FOR THE SPECIES STUDIED AND FOR EACH FLORULA SHOW THAT THESE FLORULAS FORM A SEQUENCE IN INCREASING XEROMORPHY IN THE ORDER LISTED. GENERA REPRESENTED IN MORE THAN ONE FLORULA VALIDATE THE TRENDS. DATA FOR GYROSTEMONACEAE, LORANTHACEAE, AND CUPRESSACEAE ARE CALCULATED SEPARATELY BECAUSE THESE ARE SUCCULENTS, EPIPARASITES, AND CONIFERS, RESPECTIVELY. COMPARISON WITH CATEGORIES FROM FLORAS ELSEWHERE IN THE WORLD SHOWS THE FLORA OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA AS A WHOLE TO BE RELATIVELY XEROMORPHIC. THE INDICES DEVISED SHOW PROMISE OF GREAT RELIABILITY BECAUSE CORRELATIONS WITH RAINFALL, TEMPERATURE, AND OTHER FACTORS ARE VERY CLOSE. FUNCTIONAL NATURE OF THE VESSEL ELEMENT IS THEREBY BELIEVED TO BE CLARIFIED. P. 93 LORANTHACEAE--THE WESTERN AUSTRALIAN LORANTHACEAE SHOW A VERY LOW M VALUE, AS ONE WOULD EXPECT, SINCE EPIPARASITES WOULD BE EXPECTED TO HAVE WOOD MORE XEROMORPHIC THAN THAT OF THEIR HOST PLANTS (CARLQUIST, 1975). THIS XEROMORPHY TAKES A FORM DIFFERENT FROM THAT OF DESERT SHRUBS, AS THE DATA ON LORANTHACEAE SHOW. THE LORANTHACEAE STUDIED DO NOT HAVE AN EXCEPTIONALLY LOW FIGURE FOR "VULNERABILITY." THIS WOULD BE RELATED TO THE PROBABILITY THAT MISTLETOES DO NOT EXPERIENCE SHARP SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS IN MOISTURE AVAILABILITY. WATER IN XYLEM OF THE EPIPARASITE WOULD BE EXPECTED TO BE UNDER VERY HIGH TENSION, HOWEVER. IF SO, THE SHORTNESS OF VESSEL ELEMENTS IN LORANTHACEAE WOULD AGREE WITH MY (1975) HYPOTHESIS ON RESISTANCE OF SHORT VESSEL ELEMENTS TO HIGH TENSIONS IN WATER COLUMNS OF THE XYLEM. MISTLETOE DATA BASED ON A COLLECTIONS OF "LORANTHUS" PARASITIC ON DESERT ACACIAS.
CitationCARLQUIST, S. 1977. ECOLOGICAL FACTORS IN WOOD EVOLUTION: A FLORISTICS APPROACH. AM. J. BOT. 64: 887-896.
Record Id2268

AuthorDonohue, K.
Year1995
TitleThe spatial demography of mistletoe parasitism on a Yemeni Acacia
PublicationInt. J. Plant Sci. 156(6): 816-823
GenusOTHER
Species
MajorkeyBIOTIC FACTORS , ECOLOGY , EPIDEMIOLOGY , EVOLUTION , HOST-PARASITE PHYSIOLOGY , PARASITISM , SURVEYS , USES , PHENOLOGY
MinorkeyBIRDS , TECHNIQUES
DistributionASIA, NEAR EAST
Abstract     The frequency of parasitism of a mistletoe, Pilcosephalus curviflorus, on Acacia tortilis as a function of host density and host size was investigated. The influence of host size and parasite frequency on flowering success of the parasite was also investigated. Parasitism was contagiously distributed but occurred most intensely in low-density Acacia stands. The distribution of Acacia size classes showed spatial autocorrelation, with smaller, more shrublike trees occurring in high-density clusters. Parasitism frequency and intensity were highest on larger trees, indicating that the spatial patterns of parasite distribution could be explained in part by the spatial patterns of the host size classes. Flowering success of mistletoes was not influenced by tree size but was negatively correlated with the number of mistletoes on the host. The late onset of parasitic attack with respect to the age or size of the host and the negative conspecific density effects on flowering success by the parasite could reduce adverse fitness effects on the host and thereby increase the probability of stable coexistence of A. tortilis and P. curviflorus. The size structure of the host population, by influencing the distribution of parasites among the hosts, may influence the population dynamics of the parasite and the stability of the host-parasite association.
CitationDonohue, K. 1995. The spatial demography of mistletoe parasitism on a Yemeni Acacia Int. J. Plant Sci. 156(6): 816-823
Record Id13635

AuthorFEUR, S.
Year1981
TitlePOLLEN MORPHOLOGY AND RELATIONSHIPS OF THE MISODENDRACEAE (SANTALALES).
PublicationNORDIC J. BOT. 1:731-734.
GenusMISODENDRON
Species
MajorkeyPALYNOLOGY, EVOLUTION, ANATOMY
MinorkeyULTRASTRUCTURE
DistributionSOUTH AMERICA
Abstract     THE STEM-PARASITIC FAMILY MISODENDRACEAE IS COMPOSED OF A SINGLE GENUS, MISODENDRUM, OF 12 SPP. ENDEMIC TO THE SUBANTARCTIC NOTHOGAGUS FORESTS OF CHILE AND ARGENTINA. POLLEN OF 9 SPP. WAS EXAMINED IN THE LIGHT MICROSCOPE AND SCANNING AND TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPES. POLLEN IS SPHEROIDAL (P/E 1:1), SPARSELY ECHINATE AND POLYPORATE. APERTURE NUMBER IS VARIABLE WITHIN AND AMONG SPECIES RANGING FROM (3-)4-19 PORES SCATTERED RANDOMLY OVER THE SURFACE. ULTRASTRUCTURALLY, THE POLLEN WALL IS COMPOSED PRIMARILY OF ENDEXINE WITH THE EKTEXINE REPRESENTED ONLY BY SPINES AND AN OCCASIONAL THIN GRANULAR LAYER BETWEEN THESE ELEMENTS. POLLEN DATA INDICATE TIES WITH THE RECENTLY RESURRECTED SANTALEAN FAMILY EREMOLEPIDACEAE, INCLUDING LEPIDOCERAS.
CitationFEUR, S. 1981. POLLEN MORPHOLOGY AND RELATIONSHIPS OF THE MISODENDRACEAE (SANTALALES). NORDIC J. BOT. 1:731-734.
Record Id3876

AuthorFINERAN, B. A.; HOCKING, P. J.
Year1983
TitleFEATURES OF PARASITISM, MORPHOLOGY, AND HAUSTORIAL ANATOMY IN LORANTHACEOUS ROOT PARASITES.
PublicationCHAPTER 12., P. 205-227. IN, THE BIOLOGY OF MISTLETOES (M. CALDER AND P. BERNHARDT, EDS.), ACADEMIC PRESS. SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA, 348 P.
GenusOTHER
Species
MajorkeyPARASITISM, ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, EVOLUTION, MORPHOLOGY
MinorkeyROOT SYSTEM, WATER RELATIONS
DistributionAUSTRALIA, CENTRAL AMERICA
Abstract     GENERAL CONCLUSIONS. THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE ROOT PARASITIC MISTLETOES TO THE REST OF THE LORANTHACEAE AND TO EACH OTHER IS SPECULATIVE. THODAY (1961) WAS UNCERTAIN WHETHER THEY REPRESENTED ANCESTRAL FORMS, OR THOSE WHICH HAD REVERTED TO THE PRIMITIVE MODE OF LIFE. HOWEVER, MORE RECENT OPINION ASSUMES THAT THEY ARE THE PRIMITIVE MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY (KUIJT, 1969). IN TERMS OF THE ORGANIZATION OF THE HAUSTORIUM, ATKINSONIA, GAIADENDRON AND NUYTSIA CLOSELY RESEMBLE THE SANTALACEAE, SO MUCH SO THAT THERE CAN BE LITTLE DOUBT THAT THE ORGAN IN BOTH FAMILIES HAS HAD A COMMON ORIGIN. THIS IS SHOWN ESPECIALLY BY THE PRESENCE OF GRANIFEROUS TRACHEARY ELEMENTS IN THE VASCULAR CORE. OTHER FAMILIES OF ROOT PARASITES OFTEN SHOW SIMILAR FEATURES OF HAUSTORIAL ORGANIZATION, INCLUDING GRANULE-CONTAINING TRACHEARY ELEMENTS, BUT THESE HAVE PROBABLY ARISEN AS A RESULT OF CONVERGENT EVOLUTION (FINERAN AND BULLOCK, 1979). IN LATHRAEA (SCROPHULARIACEAE) AND XIMENIA (OPILIACEAE), FOR EXAMPLE, THE GRANULES ARE STARCH RATHER THAN PROTEIN AND ARISE DIFFERENTLY DURING ONTOGENY OF THE TRACHEARY ELEMENT (FINERAN, 1981). ATKINSONIA SHOWS CLOSER AFFINITIES WITH GAIADENDRON IN STEM, ROOT AND HAUSTORIAL ANATOMY THAN WITH NUYTSIA. IN ALL ASPECTS, THE HAUSTORIUM OF ATKINSONIA AND GAIADENDRON COULD BE THAT OF THE SANTALACEAE. ON THE OTHER HAND, NUYTSIA STANDS APART. ITS ANOMALOUS SECONDARY THICKENING OF STEM, RHIZOME AND ROOT, AND THE PRESENCE OF MUCILAGE DUCTS (HERBERT, 1919) ARE FEATURES UNKNOWN IN THE SANTALACEAE AND RARE IN THE LORANTHACEAE (METCALFE AND CHALK, 1957). HERBERT'S (1919) DESCRIPTION SHOWS A GENERAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE UNUSUAL GROWTH OF THE PLANT, BUT SUBSEQUENT ANATOMISTS (E.G., PHILIPSON ET AL., 1971) HAVE OVERLOOKED NUYTSIA WHEN REVIEWING ANOMALOUS CAMBIAL ACTIVITY. THE SCALY RHIZOME OF NUYTSIA HAS NO EQUIVALENT IN THE SANTALACEAE OR ATKINSONIA, BUT THERE MAY BE A COMPARABLE STRUCTURE IN GAIADENDRON (KUIJT, 1963, 1965). ALTHOUGH SANTALALEAN IN BASIC ORGANIZATION, THE HAUSTORIUM OF NUYTSIA EXHIBITS A NUMBER OF STRIKING MODIFICATIONS WHICH SUGGEST GREATER DIVERGENCE FROM THE ANCESTRAL CONDITION. THE SCLERENCHYMATOUS "HORN" IS UNIQUE; ITS PRESENCE MAY BE ASSOCIATED WITH THE PECULIAR WAY IN WHICH THE HOST ROOT IS SEVERED DURING PENETRATION. THE COMPLETE AND CLEAN AMPUTATION OF THE HOST ROOT'S STELE, WITH THE SEVERED PORTIONS SEPARATED BY TISSUES OF THE SUCKER, IS ENTIRELY UNKNOWN IN ANY OTHER DESCRIBED HAUSTORIAL SYSTEM AMONG ANGIOSPERM PARASITES. THE PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR THE HOST OF THE COMPLETE INTERRUPTION OF ITS XYLEM HAS YET TO BE ELUCIDATED, BUT PRESUMABLY FOR THE PARASITE IT IS A MEANS WHEREBY THE WHOLE CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF THE HOST XYLEM MAY BE TAPPED FOR WATER AND NUTRIENTS (SEE CH. 13, SECT. III). THE TWO SEPARATE VASCULAR CORES ARE ALSO ANOTHER UNUSUAL FEATURE OF NUYTSIA. THEY ARE POSSIBLY THE CONSEQUENCE OF THE MODE OF PENETRATION BY THE SUCKER, AND THE NEED TO SUPPLY THE TRACHEARY ELEMENTS TAPPING EACH CUT END OF THE HOST ROOT WITH THEIR OWN VASCULAR CORE AS PART OF THE FUNCTIONAL MECHANISM OF THE HAUSTORIUM. IN THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE SUCKER TO THE HOST ROOT, ATKINSONIA, BY SOMETIMES SPLITTING THE HOST'S STELE, SHOWS A MORE AGTRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR THAN ANY WHICH IS FOUND IN THE SANTALACEAE, WHERE THE SUCKER USUALLY STOPS ON MEETING THE XYLEM. THIS TENDENCY IN ATKINSONIA MAY REPRESENT A STAGE IN THE EVOLUTION TOWARDS THE MORE EXTREME CONDITION FOUND IN NUYTSIA, WHERE A COMPLETE SLICE OF HOST XYLEM IS REMOVED AND REPLACED BY PARASITE TISSUE.
CitationFINERAN, B. A.; HOCKING, P. J. 1983. FEATURES OF PARASITISM, MORPHOLOGY, AND HAUSTORIAL ANATOMY IN LORANTHACEOUS ROOT PARASITES. CHAPTER 12., P. 205-227. IN, THE BIOLOGY OF MISTLETOES (M. CALDER AND P. BERNHARDT, EDS.), ACADEMIC PRESS. SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA, 348 P.
Record Id3909

AuthorGENTRY, A. H.
Year1982
TitleNEOTROPICAL FLORISTIC DIVERSITY: PHYTOGEOGRAPHICAL CONNECTIONS BETWEEN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA, PLEISTOCENE CLIMATIC FLUCTUATIONS, OR AN ACCIDENT OF THE ANDEAN OROGENY?
PublicationANN. MISSOURI BOT. GARD. 69: 557-593.
GenusOTHER
Species
MajorkeyEVOLUTION, GEOGRAPHY, PALEOBOTANY, PALYNOLOGY
MinorkeyTERTIARY, QUATERNARY
DistributionSOUTH AMERICA
Abstract     INCLUDES VARIOUS REFERENCES TO MISTLETOES: P. 559. MOST OF THE CASES OF EXCLUSIVELY OR PREDOMINANTLY AMERICAN FAMILIES LIKE CACTACEAE WITH STRONGLY DIFFERENTIATED COMPONENTS IN BOTH TROPICAL NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA, WHICH RAVEN AND AXELROD (1974) ACCOUNTED FOR BY CHANCE RELATIVELY LONG DISPERSAL AT VARIOUS TIMES DURING THE EARLY CENOZOIC, MAY REFLECT INSTEAD MORE OR LESS DIRECT LATE CRETACEOUS MIGRATION BETWEEN TWO CONTINENTS, PRESUMABLY MOSTLY VIA ISLAND HOPPING. SIMILARLY, THE DICHOTOMOUS COMPOSITION OF THE WEST INDIAN FLORA, WITH BOTH STRONG SOUTHERN AND NORTHERN AFFINITIES, WOULD BE EXPECTED AS THE RESULT OF AN ORIGINAL STOCKING OF A PROTO-ANTILLEAN REGION LOCATED BETWEEN NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA AS EMPHASIZED BY ROSEN (1974), ALTHOUGH HIS ARGUMENTS FOR DIRECT LAND CONNECTIONS DO NOT ACCORD WITH THE GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE (CONEY, THIS SYMPOSIUM). THIS DICHOTOMY MAY HAVE BEEN EVEN STRONGER IN THE EARLY TERTIARY TO JUDGE FROM THE PRESENCE OF OF NOW LOCALLY EXTINCT OTHERWISE EXCLUSIVELY SOUTH AMERICAN TAXA LIKE AETANTHUS (ALTHOUGH THERE MAY BE IDENTIFICATION PROBLEMS IN SEPARATING THIS FROM THE GENERALIZED NORTHERN LORANTHUS POLLEN TYPE THAT WAS ALREADY PRESENT IN EUROPE IN THE EOCENE, ACCORDING TO MULLER, 1981). SOUTH AMERICA, LIST INCLUDES MYZODENDRACEAE (1 GENUS WITH 11 SPECIES). P. 570. LIST OF ANDEAN-CENTERED GONDWANALAND GROUPS INCLUDES LORANTHACEAE (16 GENERA WITH 592 SPECIES). P. 586. MANY OF THE NORTHERN ANDEAN-CENTERED GROUPS ARE HUMMING-BIRD POLLINATED, INCLUDING LORANTHACEAE- LORANTHOIDEAE.
CitationGENTRY, A. H. 1982. NEOTROPICAL FLORISTIC DIVERSITY: PHYTOGEOGRAPHICAL CONNECTIONS BETWEEN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA, PLEISTOCENE CLIMATIC FLUCTUATIONS, OR AN ACCIDENT OF THE ANDEAN OROGENY? ANN. MISSOURI BOT. GARD. 69: 557-593.
Record Id4355

AuthorGLAZNER, J. T.; DEVLIN, B.; ELLSTRAND, N. C.
Year1988
TitleBIOCHEMICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR HOST RACE EVOLUTION IN DESERT MISTLETOE, PHORADENDRON CALIFORNICUM (VISCACEAE).
PublicationPLANT SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTION 162:13-21.
GenusPHORADENDRON
Species
MajorkeyPHYSIOLOGY, EVOLUTION, HOSTS, TAXONOMY
MinorkeyENZYMES, CHEMOTAXONOMY
DistributionUNITED STATES, CALIFORNIA
Abstract     ALLOZYMES AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS WERE USED TO TEST WHETHER HOST RACE EVOLUTION - THE GENETIC DIVERGENCE OF PARASITIC POPULATIONS CAUSED BY ADAPTATION TO DIFFERENT HOST SPECIES - HAS OCCURRED IN DESERT MISTLETOE, PHORADENDRON CALIFORNICUM. POPULATIONS OF PHORADENDRON CALIFORNICUM FROM TWO HOSTS, ACACIA GREGGII AND PROSOPIS GLANDULOSA, WERE SURVEYED FROM THE MOJAVE AND COLORADO DESERTS. ELECTROPHORETIC DATA INDICATED GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION OF MISTLETOES OCCURRING ON THESE HOSTS. THREE OF FOUR MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS (INTERNODE LENGTH, MAIN SHOOT LATERAL SHOOT DIAMETER RATIO AND BERRY COLOR) ALSO SHOWED SIGNIFICANT HOST-SPECIFIC DIFFERENTIATION. THESE DATA SUPPORT THE HYPOTHESIS THAT HOST RACE FORMATION HAS OCCURRED OR IS OCCURRING IN THIS PARASITIC ANGIOSPERM. KEY WORDS: ANGIOSPERMS, FABALES, VISCACEAE, PHORADENDRON CALIFORNICUM, ACACIA GREGGII, PROSOPIS GLANDULOSA. - ELECTROPHORESIS, ALLOZYMES, ISOZYMES, HOST RACE EVOLUTION.
CitationGLAZNER, J. T.; DEVLIN, B.; ELLSTRAND, N. C. 1988. BIOCHEMICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR HOST RACE EVOLUTION IN DESERT MISTLETOE, PHORADENDRON CALIFORNICUM (VISCACEAE). PLANT SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTION 162:13-21.
Record Id4497

AuthorHAMBALI, G. G.
Year1977
TitleON MISTLETOE PARASITISM.
PublicationASIAN-PACIFIC WEED SCIENCE SOC., 6TH CONFERENCE VOL 1: 58-66.
GenusDENDROPHTHOE, KORTHALSELLA, VISCUM, OTHER
Species
MajorkeyPARASITISM, BIOTIC FACTORS, EVOLUTION, CONTROL, GENETICS
MinorkeyMIMICRY, BIRDS, INSECTS, DODDER, BIOLOGICAL, PRUNING
DistributionASIA, CHINA, SOUTHEAST, EUROPE
Abstract     THE TERM MISTLETOE REFERS HERE TO AERIAL PARASITES WHICH BELONG TO THE FAMILIES VISCACEAE, LORANTHACEAE, SANTALACEAE, AND THE UNIGENERIC MYZODENDRACEAE (GOOD 1974). THE LAST-NAMED FAMILY IS ENDEMIC TO SOUTH AMERICA AND ITS DISPERSAL, WHICH SEEMS TO BE CARRIED OUT BY WIND, IS VERY LITTLE KNOWN. MEMBERS OF THIS FAMILY USUALLY GROW ON NOTHOFAGUS (FAGACEAE). A FEW GENERA OF SANTALACEAE SUCH AS CLADOMYZA, DENDROMYZA, AND HYLOMYZA, OF NECESSITY, ARE ALSO COVERED BY THIS TERM SINCE THEY CONSIST OF MEMBERS THAT USUALLY PARASITIZE THE AERIAL PARTS OF MANY TREES. ALL SPECIES OF PHACELLARIA, ANOTHER SANTALACEOUS GENUS, ARE EVEN KNOWN ONLY AS PARASITES ON OTHER MISTLETOES. THE ORIGIN OF MISTLETOE PARASITISM. THE THESIS THAT THE MISTLETOES HAVE EVOLVED FROM ROOT PARASITIC PLANTS, AS ALREADY PROPOSED BY KUIJT (1969), WHICH PROVIDES THE ONLY REASONABLE EXPLANATION OF THE EARLY EVOLUTION IN THIS GROUP IS ACCEPTED IN THIS TREATMENT. THE BASIC DRIVE OF ROOT PARASITISM IS ASSUMED HERE AS THE ANTITHESIS OF ALLELOPATHY. THE DEVELOPMENT OF ROOT PARASITISM FROM A SUPERFICIAL CONTACT TO A PENETRATING ONE AS EXEMPLIFIED BY DENDROTROPHE VARIANS (BL.) MIQ. (SANTAL.) WHICH PARASITIZES ROOTS OF NUMEROUS TERRESTRIAL PLANTS LIVING NEARBY IS AN IMPORTANT EVIDENCE TOWARDS THE EXPLANATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF HAUSTORIA IN THE RELATED D. UMBELLATA (BL.) MIQ. THAT LIVES AS AN EPIPHPYTIC ROOT PARASITE. I SAW THE FORMER SPECIES GROW TERRESTRIALLY ON SOIL HIGH IN ORGANIC MATTER IN SOUTH BORNEO. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF HOST-MISTLETOE ASSOCIATION. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF HOST-MISTLETOE ASSOCIATION IN VISCACEOUS, LORANTHACEOUS, AND SANTALACEOUS MISTLETOES CANNOT BE VIEWED WITHOUT THE FLOWER PECKERS (DICAEIDAE) AS THE DISPERSING AGENTS OF THEIR SEEDS. THE TYPICAL EFFICIENT EVACUATION MODE OF THESE BIRDS BY DEPOSITING THE SEEDS ALONG THE BRANCHES ON WHICH THEY PERCH WAS FIRST REPORTED BY VAN HEURN AND THIS IMPORTANT FINDING WAS LATER REVIEWED BY DOCTERS VAN LEEUWEN (1954) IN HIS INTERESTING ARTICLE. THIS MODE OF EVACUATION IS VERY EFFICIENT SINCE THE NUMBER OF HITS IS GREATER THAN IN THE USUAL MODE OF EVACUATION OF MANY BIRDS. THESE PATTERNED VISITS CONCENTRATE SEED DEPOSITION ON THE ALREADY ASSOCIATED POTENTIAL HOSTS OF THE MISTLETOES AND AS ALREADY SUGGESTED BY ROOM (1973, P. 731), THE PERCHING SPECIFITY OF THE MISTLETOE BIRDS IS IMPORTANT TO ENSURE A SURVIVAL LEVEL OF SUCCESSFUL SEED DISPERSAL. IT FOLLOWS THAT THERE MUST BE CERTAIN PROPERTIES OF THE ALREADY ESTABLISHED HOST-MISTLETOE ASSOCIATION THAT MAKE THE BIRD PREFER TO VISIT ONLY SOME PARTICULAR HOSTS. MIMICRY APPEARS TO BE THE MAIN PARTICULAR PROPERTY WHICH CHARACTERIZES THIS ASSOCIATION. THIS IMPORTANT PHENOMENON IS PARTICULARLY STRIKING IN MANY HOST-MISTLETOE ASSOCIATIONS IN AUSTRALIA IN WHICH THE MISTLETOES MOSTLY BELONG TO THE GENUS AMYEMA (LORANTH.). IN THE TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS ONLY FEW EXAMPLES OF MIMICRY CAN BE MENTIONED. THE MOST STRIKING ONE IS SHOWN BY KORTHALSELLA DACRYDII (RIDL.) DANS. WHICH IN JAVA GROWS STRICTLY ON PODOCARPUS IMBRICATUS AND IN MALAYA ON DACRYDIUM SPP. THIS MISTLETOE RESEMBLES THE SLENDER BRANCHES OF P. IMBRICATUS. THIS TYPE OF ASSOCIATION APPEARS TO BE A VERY OLD ONE. THE DISPERSAL OF THIS TINY MISTLETOE SEEMS TO BE CONNECTED WITH SMALL BIRDS, SUCH AS PSALTRIA EXILIS (PARIDAE), THAT FREQUENTLY VISIT THE FOLIAGE OF MANY TREES IN THEIR SEARCH FOR SMALL INSECTS. ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF A SUBTLE FORM OF MIMICRY IS FOUND IN MISTLETOES GROWING IN SOME MOUNTAIN REGIONS. DUE TO HIGH LIGHT INTENSITY, MANY INDIVIDUALS OF DENDROPHTHOE PENTANDRA (L.) MIQ. IN CIBODAS NATURE RESERVE HAVE REDDISH YOUNG FOLIAGE MATCHING THAT OF SCHIMA WALLICHII (DC.) KORTH., ONE OF THE PRINCIPAL HOSTS THAT ALSO POSSESSES LEAF FORM THAT MATCHES SUPERFICAILLY THAT OF THE MISTLETOE. HOWEVER, DESPITE THE LACK OF MIMICKING PROPERTIES, ANY PROLONGED ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN A PARTICULAR MISTLETOE WITH ITS PARTICULAR HOST OR GROUP OF HOSTS ALSO SEEM TO ENABLE THE BIRDS TO RECOGNIZE THESE ASSOCIATIONS SUCH AS EXEMPLIFIED BY DENDROPHTHOE MAGNA DANS. AND ALSO VISCUM STIPITATUM LECOMTE THAT GROW ONLY ON FAGACEOUS TREES. THE GREAT NUMBER OF TREE SPECIES THAT OCCUR IN THE TROPICAL RAIN FOREST AND IN OUR GARDEN IS CERTAINLY ONE FACTOR THAT INHIBITS THE DEVELOPMENT OF HOST SPECIFICITY IN MANY MISTLETOES. IN THIS CASE THE IMPORTANCE OF THE POLYPHAGOUS CHARACTER OF THESE MISTLETOES FOR MAINTAINING SURVIVAL IN THE TROPICAL FORESTS WAS ALREADY REALIZED BY ROOM. IT IS INTERESTING TO NOTE THAT THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PHYSIOLOGICAL RACES IN VISCUM ALBUM L. MIGHT BE ACCELERATED BY THE SEEMINGLY APOMICTIC HABIT OF THIS MISTLETOE. IN A SMALL VILLAGE BETWEEN WORCESTER AND HEREFORD (ENGLAND) I FOUND MANY FEMALE PLANTS OF THIS DIOECIOUS MISTLETOE SET ABUNDANT FRUIT DESPITE THE ALMOST COMPLETE ABSENCE OF MALE INDIVIDUALS. THE SEEDS OF THIS MISTLETOE COULD CONTAIN ONE TO FOUR EMBRYOS ALTHOUGH THOSE WITH TWO EMBRYOS ARE THE MOST PREVALENT. THE ELIMINATION OF UNSALEABLE BERRILESS MALE INDIVIDUALS BY THE MISTLETOE OWNER PROBABLY INCREASES THE GENE FREQUENCY OF THE APOMICTS WHICH COULD ENHANCE FURTHER FORMATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL RACES SINCE ONCE A PARTICULAR APOMICT IS ADJUSTED TO THE NUTRIENT SYSTEM OF A PARTICULARLY HOST SPECIES THE SUBSEQUENT MISTLETOE GENERATION COULD BE ENTIRELY DEPENDENT ON THIS SINGLE HOST SPECIES. NATURAL CONTROL OF MISTLETOES. DELIAS CATERPILLARS (PIERDAE) ARE FREQUENTLY SEEN DEFOLIATING MANY LORANTHACEOUS MISTLETOES PARTICULARLY DENDROPHTHOE SPP., A PHENOMENON ALSO OBSERVED BY DOCTERS VAN LEEUWEN (1954). THESE CATERPILLARS ARE BENEFICIAL IN RETARDING THE PROFUSE GROWTH OF THE MISTLETOES, HENCE REDUCING THE ACTUAL FRUIT PRODUCTION. HOWEVER, THEY ARE OFTEN PARASITIZED IN TURN BY THE LARVAE OF APANTELES (BRACONIDAE, HYMENOPTERA) AND PREYED BY LEAF STICHING ANTS (OECOPHYLLA SMARAGDINA). MY FURTHER FIELD OBSERVATIONS SHOW THAT SCOYLTID BEETLES ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT INSECT IN CONTROLLING THE SPREAD OF MANY SPECIES OF DENDROPHTHOE AND SCURRULA SINCE THEY DESTROY MANY OF THEIR SEEDS WHICH ARE DEPOSITED BY THE BIRDS ON THE TWIGS THEY PERCH. THE CONSERVATIVE BUT EFFECTIVE METHOD OF REGULAR PRUNING SEEMS AT THE MOMENT TO BE THE BEST SOLUTION SINCE IN DEALING WITH TREES WITH HEAVY INFESTATIONS THE APPLICATION OF CHEMICAL SPRAY ALONE IS NOT SUFFICIENT. ANY EXPERIMENTAL ATTEMPTS TO COMBINE THIS METHOD WITH A SMALL SCALE PLANTING OF ORNAMENTAL TREES OR HEDGE PLANTS THAT PRODUCE SMALL SWEET BERRIES SUCH AS MUNTINGA CALABURA L., CARMONA RETUSA (VAHL.) MASAMUNE AND BRIDELIA MONOICA (LOUR.) MERR., WHICH ARE DEFINITELY KNONW PROVIDING ALTERNATIVE FOOD FOR THE MISTLETOE BIRDS, ARE VERY WORTHY OF CONSIDERATION SINCE THE POSSIBILITY TO MAKE THE MISTLETOE BIRDS LESS DEPENDENT ON MISTLETOE BERRIES IS STILL OPEN.
CitationHAMBALI, G. G. 1977. ON MISTLETOE PARASITISM. ASIAN-PACIFIC WEED SCIENCE SOC., 6TH CONFERENCE VOL 1: 58-66.
Record Id4938

AuthorHAWKSWORTH, F. G.
Year1987
TitlePALEOBOTANY AND EVOLUTION OF THE DWARF MISTLETOES (ARCEUTHOBIUM).
PublicationP.309-316, IN, PROCEEDINGS OF IV INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PARASITIC FLOWERING PLANTS, H. CHR. WEBER AND W. FORSTREUTER, EDS., AUG. 2-7, 1987, MARBURG, WEST GERMANY.
GenusARCEUTHOBIUM
Species
MajorkeyPALEOBOTANY, EVOLUTION, TAXONOMY
MinorkeyQUATERNARY, TERTIARY
DistributionGENERAL
Abstract     THE DWARF MISTLETOES (ARCEUTHOBIUM, VISCACEAE) ARE THE ONLY GROUP OF MISTLETOES RESTRICTED TO CONIFERS AND ALSO THE ONLY MISTLETOE GENUS THAT OCCURS IN BOTH THE OLD AND NEW WORLDS. ABOUT 40 TAXA ARE PRESENTLY KNOWN BUT THE TAXONOMIC STATUS OF SEVERAL MEMBERS IS POORLY UNDERSTOOD. THE DWARF MISTLETOES ARE PARASITES OF JUNIPERUS, ABIES, PICEA, PINUS AND KETELEERIA IN THE OLD WORLD AND ABIES, LARIX, PICEA, PINUS, PSEUDOTSUGA AND TSUGA IN THE NEW WORLD. THE GENUS APPARENTLY ORIGINATED IN EASTERN ASIA IN THE EOCENE OR EARLIER AND MIGRATED TO THE NEW WORLD IN THE OLIGOCENE THROUGH THE BERING AREA. THE GENUS IS MOST FULLY DEVELOPED IN THE NEW WORLD WHERE ABOUT 80% OF THE KNOWN TAXA OCCUR.
CitationHAWKSWORTH, F. G. 1987. PALEOBOTANY AND EVOLUTION OF THE DWARF MISTLETOES (ARCEUTHOBIUM). P.309-316, IN, PROCEEDINGS OF IV INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PARASITIC FLOWERING PLANTS, H. CHR. WEBER AND W. FORSTREUTER, EDS., AUG. 2-7, 1987, MARBURG, WEST GERMANY.
Record Id5212

AuthorKERSHAW, A. P.
Year1988
TitleAUSTRALASIA.
PublicationP. 237-306, IN, VEGETATION HISTORY, B. HUNTLEY AND T. WEBB III, EDITORS, HANDBOOK OF VEGETATION SCIENCE 7, KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS, DORDRECHT, BOSTON, LONDON, 803 P.
GenusGENERAL
Species
MajorkeyPALYNOLOGY, PALEOBOTANY, EVOLUTION
MinorkeyTERTIARY
DistributionAUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, ASIA, SOUTHEAST
Abstract     FIG. 4. (P. 250) SHOWS TIME RANGES OF EXTINCT FAMILIES, INCLUDING LORANTHACEAE, DATES TO ABOUT 40 MILLION YEARS IN AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND AND TO ABOUT 10 MILLION YEARS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA.
CitationKERSHAW, A. P. 1988. AUSTRALASIA. P. 237-306, IN, VEGETATION HISTORY, B. HUNTLEY AND T. WEBB III, EDITORS, HANDBOOK OF VEGETATION SCIENCE 7, KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS, DORDRECHT, BOSTON, LONDON, 803 P.
Record Id6452

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